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  1. 6 points
    Sturgeon

    Competition: Tank Design 2239

    PART ONE OF ??? The XM12 Donward: Cascadia's First Main Battle Tank? by Cho Wilson To the tank crews who served with them in the First and Second Californian Wars, and the Idaho War, it was the M15 Roach that wears the title of "first main battle tank of the Cascade Republic". These flexible tanks were the mainstay of the Cascadian Army for over 35 years, and for many of those they went unmatched in firepower and armor by the tanks of the Democratic California Republic and the Holy State of Deseret. If we were to look back, however, we'd see that another, even earlier tank contends for the title - the lesser-known M12 Donward, and its prototypes. Development of the Heavy Tank, M12, Donward began in the late 2230s with a realization within the CR Army that the long post-war period of tribal pacification was coming to an end, and a new era of potential conflict between industrialized nations was now beginning. The re-formed nation of California to the South, and Deseret to the East, had begun to challenge the Cascade Republic's hold on the regions near Oregon and Idaho. Informed by this, the CR Army determined that existing M6 Light Tanks, which were designed for ease of maintenance within the context of mobile peacekeeping operations against poorly equipped barbarian forces, would be insufficient to meet the needs of the remade world. Therefore, the CR Army Ordnance released a solicitation for two new tanks which would overmatch the tanks both in service and under development by the Deseret, and especially Californian armies. The specification called for a medium weighing no more than 45 tons with at least 3 inches of armor, and a light tank weighing no more than 25 tons with at least 1 inch of armor. These requirements were released as part of a solicitation package to the Cascadian design bureaus, who began their work. The M12's story begins with Bureau 39, a semi-private organization formed from the government design bureau which had been responsible for the earlier M1 Armored Car (originally the Field Kit, Truck, M1 before the restart of truck production) that was used extensively in pacification campaigns. Upon the release of the CR Army solicitation for a new tank in 2239, Bureau 39 undertook to create a tank design that would not only meet, but far exceed, the solicitation's specifications. A study of pre-war tank design, as well as a survey of Cascadian production capabilities, indicated that a vehicle far exceeding the requirements could be readily built and produced within the 45 tonne weight limit. The initial design prompt - called "Project 20" - issued internally to the Bureau called for "a tank of pre-war power and effectiveness, capable of being upgraded and used well into the 2280s and beyond" - this philosophy underpinned the Bureau's design effort from the beginning. Initial analysis done in support of Project 20 looked at several successful pre-war tanks, as well as promising prototypes which nevertheless did not reach production. First design studies took their cues mainly from the Centurion, M103, and Patton, but Bureau notes indicate that the US T95 and T54 tanks played their own role in inspiration as well. Early on, an elliptical glacis plate of 4.4" thick was chosen, mated to a cast hull. Although Cascadian industry was relatively new to casting large objects from armor steel, it was determined that this would be the best and cheapest way to produce hulls with the degree of protection called for by Bureau Director Gordon White. Even so, the hull was engineered so that, in the event that casting it in one piece was not feasible, it could still be welded from plates, or cast in multiple pieces and then welded into a whole. The hull was made big enough to house the 750 horsepower air- and liquid-cooled engines then in development. The crew complement was to be four based on pre-war convention. The XM12E1 hull cast test article, with attached wooden mockup side skirts and turret. This was an important validation article which proved the viability of casting hulls as a single piece. Note the early-style fully enclosed commander's cupola. Leaning on pre-war experience, Director White instructed his designers to use the same 85-inch turret ring in all their designs. The reason for this was twofold, as White explained in his memoirs: "The Bureau had multiple projects [to meet the solicitation] ongoing simultaneously. There was a lot of competition, which I felt was a good thing. It was myself, James Whittle, and Kim Wu, and we decided the way to get the best submissions was to have everybody come up with their own ideas and pick the best form them. But at the same time, we needed to standardize some things, so that we could combine the best elements of different designs. I pushed for an 85-inch turret ring, because that size lasted from 1951 until the end of the war almost 70 years later. It's really hard to beat that kind of flexibility. We also knew that eventually, there would be a need for guns as large as 140mm, and you need a bigger turret to accommodate that. So everyone was told to design around the 85-inch ring. I didn't see the need for anything smaller." The weapon chosen to arm Project 20 was significantly smaller than a 140mm cannon, however. CR Army Ordnance had directed designers to arm their tanks with current-issue APCR ammunition in mind, and internal Bureau 39 studies had indicated that a new 85mm weapon along with an optimized projectile design would produce the best penetration with APCR at long ranges. This gun was commissioned with the test designation 85mm Anti-Tank Gun XM34, and twelve tubes were produced for testing and sent to the Bureau's headquarters. To house the gun, Director White had selected a three-man "needlenose" turret designed by Bureau engineer Art Janson, which used a combined mount for both the XM34 and its auxiliary XM151 20mm autocannon. A wooden mockup validated the ergonomics of the hull and turret combination, and the design was finalized with vision and fire control elements, including a fully enclosed commander's hatch with 10 vision blocks, and stereoscopic rangefinders with cast-in mounts. With the basic design wrapped up, the plans were sent to CR Army Ordnance, who elected to fund further development of the tank, beginning with a mockup and cast hull test article. During this time additional studies indicated that a more compact cupola design with an externally-mounted and remotely fired gun on an erectable mount would be both cheaper and better. Instead of 10 vision blocks, this new turret had 7 blocks and a fully rotatable top-mounted periscope. In June of 2240, four prototypes of the freshly dubbed "Medium Tank XM12E1" were commissioned, made with fully cast armor steel hulls and turrets, the new style of cupolas, and functional guns. One of the four XM12E1 prototypes on winter exercises in Elliot Forest, in the Oregon state of the Cascade Republic, late 2240. All four test models were put into validation trials in Oregon, where they underwent cross-country, rough terrain, cold weather, and automotive endurance tests. Powered by a relatively thirsty 850 horsepower gasoline engine, the XM12E1 gave good reliability and mobility, but left something to be desired where range was concerned. The original 21-inch-wide single-pin track also had a tendency to shear, leading to its replacement during testing with newly designed double pin tracks. However, the generously-sized doubled roadwheel assemblies gave good resistance to slush, dirt, and mud, and were recommended by the testing Board. During the trials, crew accommodations were found to be very generous, as XM12E1 crews found that they not only had plenty of room to manage all of their fighting tasks, but the tank also provided space for "live-in" operations, where crews would be required to inhabit their tanks for hours or days at a time. The biggest shortcoming in crew ergonomics was that the fairly tall XM12E1s had insufficient handholds for climbing, which was solved by welding "jungle gym" bars onto the turrets of the test vehicles. Designed for mountain combat, an XM12E1 demonstrates its ability to traverse rocky obstacles during rough terrain trials in Eastern Oregon. After automotive and cross country trials were complete, the XM12E1 prototypes were returned to the factory for repair and fitment of newly produced prototype stereoscopic rangefinders, stabilizers, and other internal hardware. These tanks were then sent back to CR Army Ordnance for additional testing, including gunnery and troop trials. The results of these trials showed that the Donward was an accurate and stable gun platform with the 85mm gun, but there were some reliability issues with the vertical stabilizers and they were removed for the remainder of testing. At the same time, two sets of armor hull, turret, and skirts castings were made for protection testing against both captured Californian guns and experimental Cascadian designs then in development. Testing revealed that the XM12E1's glacis was immune to fire from the 89mm Californian gun across the frontal 30 degree arc at all distances, while the turret was immune across the 45 degree arc at all distances unless hit on the bustle at very close range (<100m). Versus the new Cascadian XM34 85mm gun, the XM12E1's turret and glacis both were immune across a 30 degree arc at all ranges, except for a very small area just above the turret ring which could be penetrated at close range. At 45 degrees, the turret was vulnerable to the 89mm gun to about 1,000 meters, but this was deemed acceptable. The hull and turret sides were vulnerable to the 89mm gun at all ranges, though this was well within specifications. The lower glacis was deemed one of the more vulnerable areas of the tank, able to be penetrated by both the 89mm and 85mm guns, as well as the smaller Californian 70mm guns at very close ranges. An XM12E1 prototype illustrates the excellent gun depression of the type with its 85mm high velocity gun while on gunnery validation trials in Eastern Oregon. Note the "jungle gym" handholds welded to the turret. XM12E1 Donward GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Crew: 4 Length (gun forward): 9.78 m Length (gun to rear): 8.75 m Length (w/o gun): 7.37 m Gun Overhang (gun forward): 1.46 m Width (over skirts): 3.47 m Width (without skirts): 3.35 m Height (to roof): 2.61 m Height (to 7.62 MG): 2.95 m Ground Clearance: 0.61 m Turret Ring Diameter (inside): 85 in Weight, Curb: 43,038 kg Weight, Gross: 45,303 kg Power to Weight Ratio (gross): 18.8 hp/t Ground Pressure: 11.4 PSI PROTECTION Hull armor: Upper glacis - 4.4" at 28 degrees - 239mm LOS (slightly elliptical) Lower glacis - 3" at 44.6 degrees - 108mm LOS Side - 2" at 15 degrees, plus 1" side skirts spaced at 22-38" - 78.4mm LOS Turret armor: 0 degrees: 512mm at forehead, 240mm at nose, 186mm above ring 15 degrees: 502mm at forehead, 220mm at nose, 167mm above ring, 339mm sides 30 degrees: 358mm at forehead, 200mm at nose, 147mm above ring, 175mm sides 45 degrees: 262mm at forehead, 154mm at nose, 136mm above ring, 124mm sides ARMAMENT Primary: 85x640mmR XM34 L/50 Rifled Gun Traverse: Electrohydraulic and manual, 360 degrees Traverse Rate (max): 24 d/s, 15 seconds/360 degrees Elevation: Electrohydraulic and manual, +25/-10 degrees Elevation Rate: 15 d/s Firing Rate (max): 8 rounds/min Stabilizer: Vertical Secondary: (1) 20x140mm XM151 autocannon, coaxial (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, coaxial (1) .50 caliber M2 machine gun, commander's hatch (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, loader's position Provision for (1) 9mm M95 Submachine Gun AMMUNITION 62 rounds 85x640mmR 500 rounds 20x140mm 800 rounds .50 caliber 6,000 rounds 7.62mm (coaxial) 1,200 rounds 7.62mm (loader) 210 rounds 9mm 24 smoke grenades FIRE CONTROL AND VISION EQUIPMENT Primary Weapon: Direct: Gunner's Primary Sight Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Ballistic Calculator Stereoscopic Rangefinder Indirect: Azimuth Indicator Elevation Quadrant Gunner's Quadrant Vision Devices: Driver: Periscopes (3), Night Vision Commander: Periscope Vision Blocks (7), Rotatable Periscope (1), Weapon Sight (1) Gunner: Gunner's Primary Sight, Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Loader: Periscope (1) POWERPLANT XG850 850 hp air-cooled turbocharged V12 gasoline engine, 29.4 L displacement, cross-drive transmission
  2. 3 points
    Collection of photos made during Yarmouk operation
  3. 3 points
    Red/dark blue: prospective Brown/gray blue: modernization Yellow/light blue: production The orange bit isn't in the legend, I'm guessing it's a modernization that has already been applied?
  4. 3 points
    Sturgeon

    Competition: Tank Design 2239

    The XM15 Roach: Cascadia's Chariot of Victory by Greg Quartermain Through three major wars and numerous smaller conflicts, one vehicle has been the mainstay of the CR Army's armored forces: The M15 Roach, named after General Ernst Roach who commanded Washingtonian forces in the Pacification Wars of the 2160s, is an example of such fine design from Cascadian engineers that, even 40 years after it entered service, the type is still going strong through upgrades and steady low rate production. Despite being the first Cascadian Main Battle Tank (MBT) to see service, the M15 is still a front line vehicle, capable of contending with even the latest tanks California or Colorado can throw at us. Since the type is expected to be replaced by 2300 by the fruits of the CR Army's Next Generation Armor (NGA) program, let's take a look at this venerable chariot of death, here at Cascade Defense. An M15A7 near Mt. Bachelor, Cascadia. In the 2230s, new challenges were arising which threatened the security of the Cascadian state. To the South, the despotic regime of the DCR was rapidly industrializing, its sights set on Oregon. To the East, the religious fanatics of the now-defunct state of Deseret had their tentacles gripped tightly around Idaho. Of the peoples of post-war Western Central North America, only the Cascadians knew the sweet taste of freedom, but there was danger. Decades of low intensity pacification conflicts had left the Cascadian Army complacent and ill-equipped to handle the threat of a modern, industrialized state - let alone two. If freedom were to survive, Cascadia would need a new plan, and new arms. Fortunately, the a brilliant engineer named Brandon Jimenez stepped up to the plate. Working for Cascadia Land Industries, Jiminez developed a radical new tank - unlike any made before - which combined a simple and rugged hull with a totally novel cast "frying pan" turret - producing a vehicle that was fast, well-armored, and well-armed. At the same time, his design - called Object A5 for secrecy during development - would accommodate numerous upgrades during its long service life, which has given Cascadian Army forces the edge in armored combat for over four decades. An M15A2 in action during the Mormon War, 2250. Jiminez designed the M15 himself as a side project while working at CLI - taking time off from developing a prototype for the Cascadian Army's self-propelled howitzer project to carve his designs out of wood (yes, really!). In 2243, the design caught the eye of the Cascadian Army Ordnance Corps, who were looking for a new tank to replace their old-but-trustworthy M6 Lights. The Army wanted to test Jiminez's new design, but to do so they needed to give it a new name: XM15 (X for eXperimental). These brand new tanks came out of the gate with over 200 millimeters of armor and a 100-millimeter gun - far more than any enemy tanks of the time! Naturally, the Army was smitten, and so the design was chosen for production with the first M15 "Roach" tanks rolling off the lines in 2246, just three years before the beginning of the Mormon War. In that conflict, Roaches came as a major shock to brainwashed Mormon forces, who had nothing comparable in their arsenal. The rapid destruction of the Deseret Expeditionary Corps has been credited to the employment of superior M15 Roach tanks and their tough armor and 100-millimeter guns. Although the war in Idaho wouldn't be finished for another 4 years, the "mail gauntlet" of M15 Roach tanks was key to breaking the back of their army proper within the first year. An M15A4 crew enjoys a sunset joyride through the streets of Oakland during the 2265 Second California War. Since then, the Roach has been upgraded. The two California Wars of 2251 and 2265 showed that the engineers working under whip and cuff in the despotic DCR regime had not been idle. New medium and heavy tanks from the South had guns that could - sometimes - kill or immobilize the M15. Plus, their infantry began carrying rockets that could endanger Roach crews with a lucky shot. Therefore, Cascadian engineers added armor to the turret and "skirts" along the outside of the tracks which helped defuse rocket warheads and stop cannon shells. Later upgrades included a new, bigger 152-millimeter gun, and special top secret "Chelan" armor to protect it against the latest guns. Bigger engines to move around all that armor, and new sights to make the bigger guns more accurate too were also added. The newest versions, called M18, even have a totally new turret incorporating the latest armor and additional stowage for the big 152-millimeter shells. With these upgrades, the Roach remains the premiere main battle tank of the world, even 40 years later! The latest M18A1 Roach on display outside of the 2288 Cascadian Defense Industry Conference. M15A2 Roach GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Crew: 4 Length (gun forward): 9.07 m Length (gun to rear): 8.60 m Length (w/o gun): 6.72 m Gun Overhang (gun forward): 2.35 m Width: 3.29 m Height (to roof): 2.60 m Height (to 7.62 MG): 2.860 m Ground Clearance: 0.71 m Turret Ring Diameter (inside): 85 in Weight, Curb: 35,225 kg Weight, Gross: 38,103 kg Power to Weight Ratio (gross): 16.4 hp/t Ground Pressure: 9.1 PSI PROTECTION Hull armor: Upper glacis - 55mm at 5 degrees - 631mm LOS Lower glacis - 125mm at 45 degrees - 177mm LOS Side - 80mm at 0 degrees Turret armor: 0 degrees: 225mm at base, 225mm at top of gun shield, 225mm at roof 15 degrees: 227mm at base, 212mm at top of gun shield, 217mm at roof 30 degrees: 234mm at base, 197mm at top of gun shield, 211mm at roof 45 degrees: 235mm at base, 191mm at top of gun shield, 198mm at roof 60 degrees: 223mm at base, 187mm at top of gun shield, 191mm at roof ARMAMENT Primary: 100x685mmR XM42 L/52 Rifled Gun Traverse: Electrohydraulic and manual, 360 degrees Traverse Rate (max): 24 d/s, 15 seconds/360 degrees Elevation: Electrohydraulic and manual, +25/-9 degrees Elevation Rate: 15 d/s Firing Rate (max): 7 rounds/min Stabilizer: Vertical Secondary: (1) 20x140mm XM151 autocannon, coaxial (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, coaxial (1) .50 caliber M2 machine gun, commander's hatch (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, loader's position Provision for (1) 9mm M95 Submachine Gun AMMUNITION 45 rounds 100x685mmR 500 rounds 20x140mm 800 rounds .50 caliber 6,000 rounds 7.62mm (coaxial) 1,200 rounds 7.62mm (loader) 210 rounds 9mm 24 smoke grenades FIRE CONTROL AND VISION EQUIPMENT Primary Weapon: Direct: Gunner's Primary Sight Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Ballistic Calculator Indirect: Azimuth Indicator Elevation Quadrant Gunner's Quadrant Vision Devices: Driver: Periscopes (3), Night Vision Commander: Periscope Vision Blocks (7), Rotatable Periscope (1), Weapon Sight (1) Gunner: Gunner's Primary Sight, Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Loader: Periscope (1) POWERPLANT 620 hp liquid-cooled V12 diesel, 38 L displacement, cross-drive transmission M15A4 Roach GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Crew: 4 Length (gun forward): 9.07 m Length (gun to rear): 8.60 m Length (w/o gun): 6.72 m Gun Overhang (gun forward): 2.35 m Width (over skirts): 3.39 m Width (without skirts): 3.29 m Height (to roof): 2.60 m Height (to 7.62 MG): 2.860 m Ground Clearance: 0.71 m Turret Ring Diameter (inside): 85 in Weight, Curb: 40,786 kg Weight, Gross: 42,564 kg Power to Weight Ratio (gross): 18.3 hp/t Ground Pressure: 10.1 PSI PROTECTION Hull armor: Upper glacis - 55mm at 5 degrees - 631mm LOS Lower glacis - 125mm at 45 degrees - 177mm LOS Side - 80mm at 0 degrees + 25.4mm side skirts spaced at 703mm - 105.4mm LOS Turret armor: 0 degrees: 225mm at base, 225mm at top of gun shield, 225mm at roof 15 degrees: 227mm at base, 212mm at top of gun shield, 217mm at roof 30 degrees: 234mm at base, 197mm at top of gun shield, 211mm at roof 45 degrees: 235mm at base, 191mm at top of gun shield, 198mm at roof 60 degrees: 223mm at base, 187mm at top of gun shield, 191mm at roof Plus 60mm armor spaced at 203mm across frontal 90 degree arc. ARMAMENT Primary: 100x685mmR XM42 L/52 Rifled Gun Traverse: Electrohydraulic and manual, 360 degrees Traverse Rate (max): 24 d/s, 15 seconds/360 degrees Elevation: Electrohydraulic and manual, +25/-9 degrees Elevation Rate: 15 d/s Firing Rate (max): 7 rounds/min Stabilizer: Vertical Secondary: (1) 20x140mm XM151 autocannon, coaxial (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, coaxial (1) .50 caliber M2 machine gun, commander's hatch (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, loader's position Provision for (1) 9mm M95 Submachine Gun AMMUNITION 45 rounds 100x685mmR 500 rounds 20x140mm 800 rounds .50 caliber 6,000 rounds 7.62mm (coaxial) 1,200 rounds 7.62mm (loader) 210 rounds 9mm 24 smoke grenades FIRE CONTROL AND VISION EQUIPMENT Primary Weapon: Direct: Gunner's Primary Sight Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Ballistic Calculator Stereoscopic Rangefinder Indirect: Azimuth Indicator Elevation Quadrant Gunner's Quadrant Vision Devices: Driver: Periscopes (3), Night Vision Commander: Periscope Vision Blocks (7), Rotatable Periscope (1), Weapon Sight (1) Gunner: Gunner's Primary Sight, Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Loader: Periscope (1) POWERPLANT 780 hp liquid-cooled V12 diesel, 39 L displacement, cross-drive transmission M15A5 Roach GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Crew: 4 Length (gun forward): 9.07 m Length (gun to rear): 8.60 m Length (w/o gun): 6.72 m Gun Overhang (gun forward): 2.35 m Width (over skirts): 3.39 m Width (without skirts): 3.29 m Height (to roof): 2.60 m Height (to 7.62 MG): 2.860 m Ground Clearance: 0.71 m Turret Ring Diameter (inside): 85 in Weight, Curb: 41,932 kg Weight, Gross: 43,710 kg Power to Weight Ratio (gross): 17.8 hp/t Ground Pressure: 10.4 PSI PROTECTION Hull armor: Upper glacis - 55mm at 5 degrees - 631mm LOS Lower glacis - 125mm at 45 degrees (177mm LOS) + 215mm thick NERA array of 5mm/10mm/5mm steel/poly/steel plates spaced 20mm and angled at 15 deg from horizontal Side - 80mm at 0 degrees + 25.4mm side skirts spaced at 703mm - 105.4mm LOS Turret armor: 0 degrees: 225mm at base, 225mm at top of gun shield, 225mm at roof 15 degrees: 227mm at base, 212mm at top of gun shield, 217mm at roof 30 degrees: 234mm at base, 197mm at top of gun shield, 211mm at roof 45 degrees: 235mm at base, 191mm at top of gun shield, 198mm at roof 60 degrees: 223mm at base, 187mm at top of gun shield, 191mm at roof Plus 215mm thick NERA array of 5mm/10mm/5mm steel/poly/steel plates spaced 20mm and angled at 30 deg from horizontal across frontal 90 degree arc (approx. 280mm protection vs. HEAT, 527mm protection vs. APFSDS, centerline impact). ARMAMENT Primary: 100x685mmR XM42 L/52 Rifled Gun Traverse: Electrohydraulic and manual, 360 degrees Traverse Rate (max): 24 d/s, 15 seconds/360 degrees Elevation: Electrohydraulic and manual, +25/-9 degrees Elevation Rate: 15 d/s Firing Rate (max): 7 rounds/min Stabilizer: Vertical Secondary: (1) 20x140mm XM151 autocannon, coaxial (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, coaxial (1) .50 caliber M2 machine gun, commander's hatch (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, loader's position Provision for (1) 9mm M95 Submachine Gun AMMUNITION 45 rounds 100x685mmR 500 rounds 20x140mm 800 rounds .50 caliber 6,000 rounds 7.62mm (coaxial) 1,200 rounds 7.62mm (loader) 210 rounds 9mm 24 smoke grenades FIRE CONTROL AND VISION EQUIPMENT Primary Weapon: Direct: Gunner's Primary Sight Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Ballistic Calculator Stereoscopic Rangefinder Indirect: Azimuth Indicator Elevation Quadrant Gunner's Quadrant Vision Devices: Driver: Periscopes (3), Night Vision Commander: Periscope Vision Blocks (7), Rotatable Periscope (1), Weapon Sight (1) Gunner: Gunner's Primary Sight, Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Loader: Periscope (1) POWERPLANT 780 hp liquid-cooled V12 diesel, 39 L displacement, cross-drive transmission M15A7 Roach GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Crew: 4 Length (gun forward): 10.55 m Length (gun to rear): 10.43 m Length (w/o gun): 6.85 m Gun Overhang (gun forward): 4.04 m Width (over skirts): 3.39 m Width (without skirts): 3.29 m Height (to roof): 2.60 m Height (to 7.62 MG): 2.860 m Ground Clearance: 0.71 m Turret Ring Diameter (inside): 85 in Weight, Curb: 42,427 kg Weight, Gross: 45,093 kg Power to Weight Ratio (gross): 17.3 hp/t Ground Pressure: 10.7 PSI PROTECTION Hull armor: Upper glacis - 55mm at 5 degrees - 631mm LOS Lower glacis - 125mm at 45 degrees (177mm LOS) + 215mm thick NERA array of 5mm/10mm/5mm steel/poly/steel plates spaced 20mm and angled at 15 deg from horizontal Side - 80mm at 0 degrees + 25.4mm side skirts spaced at 703mm - 105.4mm LOS Turret armor: 0 degrees: 225mm at base, 225mm at top of gun shield, 225mm at roof 15 degrees: 227mm at base, 212mm at top of gun shield, 217mm at roof 30 degrees: 234mm at base, 197mm at top of gun shield, 211mm at roof 45 degrees: 235mm at base, 191mm at top of gun shield, 198mm at roof 60 degrees: 223mm at base, 187mm at top of gun shield, 191mm at roof Plus 215mm thick NERA array of 5mm/10mm/5mm steel/poly/steel plates spaced 20mm and angled at 30 deg from horizontal across frontal 90 degree arc (approx. 280mm protection vs. HEAT, 527mm protection vs. APFSDS, centerline impact). ARMAMENT Primary: 152x923mmR XM59 L/48.5 Autoloaded Rifled Gun Traverse: Electrohydraulic and manual, 360 degrees Traverse Rate (max): 24 d/s, 15 seconds/360 degrees Elevation: Electrohydraulic and manual, +20/-8 degrees Elevation Rate: 10 d/s Firing Rate (max): 3 rounds/min Stabilizer: 3-Axis Secondary: (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, coaxial (1) .50 caliber M2 machine gun, commander's hatch (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, loader's position Provision for (1) 9mm M95 Submachine Gun AMMUNITION 24 rounds 152x923mmR 800 rounds .50 caliber 6,000 rounds 7.62mm (coaxial) 1,200 rounds 7.62mm (loader) 210 rounds 9mm 24 smoke grenades FIRE CONTROL AND VISION EQUIPMENT Primary Weapon: Direct: Gunner's Primary Sight Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Ballistic Calculator Stereoscopic Rangefinder Indirect: Azimuth Indicator Elevation Quadrant Gunner's Quadrant Vision Devices: Driver: Periscopes (3), Night Vision Commander: Periscope Vision Blocks (7), Rotatable Periscope (1), Weapon Sight (1) Gunner: Gunner's Primary Sight, Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Loader: Periscope (1) POWERPLANT 780 hp liquid-cooled V12 diesel, 39 L displacement, cross-drive transmission M18A1 Roach GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Crew: 4 Length (gun forward): 10.94 m Length (gun to rear): 10.60 m Length (w/o gun): 6.85 m Gun Overhang (gun forward): 4.09 m Width (over skirts): 3.39 m Width (without skirts): 3.29 m Height (to roof): 2.52 m Height (to 7.62 MG): 2.850 m Ground Clearance: 0.71 m Turret Ring Diameter (inside): 85 in Weight, Curb: 42,427 kg Weight, Gross: 45,562 kg Power to Weight Ratio (gross): 17.1 hp/t Ground Pressure: 10.8 PSI PROTECTION Hull armor: Upper glacis - 55mm at 5 degrees - 631mm LOS Lower glacis - 125mm at 45 degrees (177mm LOS) + 215mm thick NERA array of 5mm/10mm/5mm steel/poly/steel plates spaced 20mm and angled at 15 deg from horizontal Side - 80mm at 0 degrees + 25.4mm side skirts spaced at 703mm - 105.4mm LOS Turret armor: 0 degrees: 512mm at forehead, 247mm at nose, 202mm above ring 15 degrees: 530mm at forehead, 252mm at nose, 209mm above ring, 339mm sides 30 degrees: 591mm at forehead, 198mm at nose, 176mm above ring, 175mm sides 45 degrees: 724mm at forehead, 100mm at nose, 89mm above ring, 124mm sides Plus 215mm thick NERA array of 5mm/10mm/5mm steel/poly/steel plates spaced 20mm and angled at 30 deg from horizontal across front and sides (approx. 280mm protection vs. HEAT, 527mm protection vs. APFSDS, centerline impact). ARMAMENT Primary: 152x923mmR XM59 L/48.5 Rifled Gun Traverse: Electrohydraulic and manual, 360 degrees Traverse Rate (max): 24 d/s, 15 seconds/360 degrees Elevation: Electrohydraulic and manual, +20/-8 degrees Elevation Rate: 10 d/s Firing Rate (max): 3 rounds/min Stabilizer: 3-Axis Secondary: (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, coaxial (1) .50 caliber M2 machine gun, commander's hatch (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, loader's position Provision for (1) 9mm M95 Submachine Gun AMMUNITION 30 rounds 152x923mmR 800 rounds .50 caliber 6,000 rounds 7.62mm (coaxial) 1,200 rounds 7.62mm (loader) 210 rounds 9mm 24 smoke grenades FIRE CONTROL AND VISION EQUIPMENT Primary Weapon: Direct: Gunner's Primary Sight Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Ballistic Calculator Stereoscopic Rangefinder Indirect: Azimuth Indicator Elevation Quadrant Gunner's Quadrant Vision Devices: Driver: Periscopes (3), Night Vision Commander: Periscope Vision Blocks (7), Rotatable Periscope (1), Weapon Sight (1) Gunner: Gunner's Primary Sight, Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Loader: Periscope (1) POWERPLANT 780 hp liquid-cooled V12 diesel, 39 L displacement, cross-drive transmission
  5. 3 points
    Found my new homestead. The view ain't bad. Found a weird lookin' wolf.
  6. 2 points
    RedEffect

    T-90M - Russian redemption

    Greeting everyone, many of you are familiar with this very tank, and why shouldn't you be, it's a pretty good tank. Nevertheless, I am here to give a better insight into what this tank has to offer. Where should we start, I usually like to first start off with protection, if you don't mind. PROTECTION Unlike T-90A tank which we've seen enough in the past decade, T-90M has new "Relikt" Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) which offers much better protection when compared to Kontakt-5 present on T-90A tanks. On top of having better ERA package, it is also much better covered in ERA, because those silly Shtora-1 dazzlers got removed and no longer take majority of space on the turret's front. As you can see, dazzlers took up a lot of space, on top of that, those ERA blocks between the gun and dazzlers could not have been made the same size as regular Kontakt-5 blocks, because of... dazzlers. T-90M only retained laser-warning receivers in the place of dazzlers, which gives a much better ERA coverage on the turret. As you can also see on the picture, the tank now has a proper gun shield which should protect the gun mantlet against unwanted visitors (projectiles, ofc). The Upper Front Plate is also covered in "Relikt" ERA. The side protection of the tank is a bit mysterious, the side of the hull, that is. While the older tanks, such as previously mentioned T-90A used visible ERA plates, there was nothing confusing about them, but there hasn't been any official information about side skirts having ERA, and when you look the skirts from the top, there is nothing to really indicate presence of ERA. I do hope I am wrong about this one, since it would be strange to go from fully protected side armor with ERA panels to simple steel+rubber composition plates, which aren't even thick enough to begin with. I don't know, if someone has reliable information, please let me know, I will edit the post with it. The side of the turret is protected with 4S24 ERA blocks, side and rear of the engine compartment are protected with cage or "Slat" armor On top of external protection, T-90M has some cool features to protect the crew. The insides of the tank are covered with non-flammable aramid fabric which serves to catch fragments formed by projectiles or perforated armor. The autoloader's carousel also received additional protection to protect it against additional fragments. Additional protection is also ensured by moving extra ammunition to safe ammo rack with blow-out panels placed on the rear of the turret which is additionally protected with cage armor. FIREPOWER The tank has 2A46M-5 125mm gun, which is the latest gun from the 2A46M series. The tank received a new feature which was not previously seen on Russian tanks, and that is Muzzle Reference Sensor (MRS) which takes the information of barrel changing its form in cold or hot weather condition and brings them to ballistic computer for more accurate shooting. The ammunition it can fire is of course the best Russia has to offer for the gun, and those are 3BM59 and 3BM60 APFSDS projectiles. There are also reports of 3VOF128 HEF projectile entering service with Russian army, which can also airburst and detonate after penetration. Other projectiles include HEAT and ATGMs. The Fire Control System is really nice. It of course, has Sosna-U main gun sight, which has automatic tracking ability and uses 2nd generation Catherine FC Thermal Imaging System. The commander has much better time since unlike previous Russian tanks he now has his own Thermal Viewer connected to the 12.7mm Kord HMG (unlike T-90MS (SM) domestic variant has 12.7mm). CITV incorporates Catherine XP Thermal Imaging System which is 3rd generation TIS, which is better than what most modern tanks have. In addition, both gunner and commander can access back-up sight located next to the Sosna-U sight. Commander has access to new multifunction display which on top of other things, show location of the tank. The tank has YeSU-TZ Battle Management System which allows communication with all units on the present battlefield, making warfare much easier. Another small, but important improvement is the commanders cupola, unlike older T-90A, commander now has full 360deg view with larger vision blocks all around the cupola. In addition, the hatch can be rotated for different purposes and there are 4 cameras for additional 360deg view. MOBILITY The tank weights 48t and it is powered with new V-92S2F 1130hp diesel engine, with 2000rpm and maximum torque of 4521Nm (pretty neat). In addition to such a good engine, the tank received automatic transmission APP-172 which is VERY NICE. On top of that, the tank received an APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) which reduces the fuel consumption when the tank is idle by powering the electrical systems. *WILL CONTINUE WITH THE POST LATER*
  7. 2 points
  8. 2 points
  9. 2 points
    LoooSeR

    Tanks guns and ammunition.

    Claimed to be DU Svinets.
  10. 2 points
  11. 2 points
    Having multiple printings is just as likely a sign of a publisher playing it safe than it is of a book being very popular without any numbers given.
  12. 2 points
    N-L-M

    Competition: Tank Design 2239

    Thanks to the miracle of asset reuse, the Red Fox is more detailed than it has any right to be. The gun is a 35mm autocannon, and the cupola and optics (and hatches) stolen from the Norman. The render may not get significantly more complex than the current state, as I lack the time. Regarding the missile, a few notes which popped up: >The intent is to have an MCLOS missile broadly analogous to the AT-5 Spandrel (Though with a larger missile body), easily upgradeable to SACLOS when the tech arrives without loss of capability relative to a purpose-built SACLOS like the AT-5. >The missile is lightly spun to maintain direction throughout flight without requiring constant operator input >I'm also intending for an MLU to replace the rocket motors and warheads >There's space in the nose for a precursor, and the warhead sits a bit further back than is good for it with existing HEAT tech, because a 160mm HEAT warhead even at standoff greater than optimal will kill things pretty dead, and later warheads will benefit from the standoff. Regarding the concept- light tanks are not intended to go toe-to-toe with MBTs or heavy tanks. The 35mm allows the destruction of anything short of a medium tank from the front, and mediums/MBTs at close range from the sides and rear. The missiles are intended to allow self defense and ambush capability against the heaviest vehicles the enemy can field, as well as the destruction of fortifications and strong points, in the absence of heavy enemy armor.
  13. 2 points
    Mighty_Zuk

    Britons are in trouble

    https://www.shephardmedia.com/news/landwarfareintl/bae-systems-unveils-upgraded-mark-2-challanger-2/ Full text:
  14. 2 points
    Credibility with who? Credibility with people in a profession who stand in a mud puddle while on camera, making believe they're fighting off hurricane force winds? The profession that breathlessly reports on Nikki Haley's curtains and then has to grovel and issue a retraction because the narrative didn't match the carpet? He has credibility in an institution that relies solely on "unnamed sources" for even the most routine of stories and which can't even get the "Who" right when reporting on "Who, What, Where, When, Why" He has credibility in a profession whose trustworthiness with the American public consistently ranks below that of used car salesmen? He has credibility in the DC media/cable news/Sunday talk show crowd which has shown itself to be completely incapable of writing anything factual about the President whether its misreporting on when the Trump campaign having access to Wikileaks emails, or Trump removing the bust of mlk from the White House or even how he feeds a bunch of god damn sacred carp in Japan.
  15. 2 points
    N-L-M

    Competition: Tank Design 2239

    Secondary armament for the Red Fox light tank/scout car is in: Yes that is a guided missile and yes I will be exhaustively justifying why I believe it to be feasible with the existing tech. The ATGM is MCLOS and easily converted to SACLOS; space will be reserved in the turret for the guidance equipment. The aerodynamic setup is reminiscent of the AT-5 Spandrel, and has been chosen to avoid the most common problem of MCLOS ATGMs as built before the war, and will also be exhaustively discussed in the final submission. Exact dimensions are still liable to change.
  16. 1 point
  17. 1 point
    Something similar that was posted here before, but too early to include T-80U and T-72B (dated 1977).
  18. 1 point
    Sturgeon

    Competition: Tank Design 2239

    PART TWO OF ??? The XM12 Donward: Cascadia's First Main Battle Tank? by Cho Wilson As testing of the XM12E1 was ongoing, the engineers at Bureau 39 were already considering the next round of improvements for the tank. By this point, the Cascadian government had received intelligence that the Democratic California Republic was working on an 89mm gun that would equal or exceed the performance of the XM34 gun which was originally slated to arm the M12. It also seemed likely, given precedent, that Californian engineers would be hard at work on their own tank which would withstand guns of similar performance, and that therefore a larger, more powerful gun would be required. Two such guns were developed, the 100mm Gun XM42, and the 120mm Gun XM43. The 100mm XM42 was an enlarged, but broadly conventional gun firing a 35lb steel shot at 3,000 ft/s, where the XM43 was a new concept engineered around achieving the highest possible muzzle velocity with an APCR projectile. The 120mm projectile of the XM43 used the same weight penetrator as the APCR round of the 85mm XM34, but achieved an almost 400 ft/s higher muzzle velocity of over 4,200 ft/s. However, striking energy of the core was no higher at extended ranges, and testing showed that the core was prone to shattering at close ranges, while the 120mm case itself was too small, and its overall length too short to give any appreciable advantage with full caliber steel projectiles. One prototype XM12E3 was produced, and later converted as a test platform for newer 152mm guns which will be discussed later. A rare image of the prototype XM12E3 on tactical road trials. Note the distinctive conical muzzle brake of the 120mm main gun. The single XM12E3 built was only lightly tested, and eventually converted into a testbed for the 152mm XM12E4. Ballistic testing of the new 100mm XM42 gun had, on the other hand, proven rather successful, with the gun's full-bore APCBC round becoming the first such tank gun in CR Army history to punch through an 8-inch thick block of RHA at a kilometer. The round demonstrated the ability to penetrate such thick armor at this distance 83% of the time at in tests, which led to its selection as main armament for the next battle tank over both the XM34 85mm and the XM43 120mm guns. As an added boon, the newest APCR rounds developed for the 100mm had demonstrated superior penetration against thick armor steels than either the 85mm or 120mm APCR rounds then in testing. Thus, four more prototypes, designated XM12E2, were ordered armed with the 100mm gun nestled alongside a 20x140mm coaxial autocannon. Thanks to the design of Janson's generously-sized turret, the XM42 gun could depress and elevate through the same -10/+25 degree arc as its predecessor, giving the XM12E2 a tremendous degree of mountain fighting capability. An XM12E2 prototype showing off its gun depression near a man-made lake somewhere in Southern Cascadia. Also clearly visible is the 20mm coaxial autocannon. Note the lack of handholds on the turret. Three of the XM12E2 prototypes were sent off to troop trials beginning early in 2242, and a further two XM12E1 tanks were converted to XM12E2 standard to create enough tanks for a full platoon to be used in exercises. The receiving unit was the legendary "Howling Hawks" of 1st Squadron, 303rd Cavalry Regiment. This "experimental platoon" was crucial to developing familiarity and experience with modern battle tanks, it being the first unit in CR Army history so equipped. In exercises with the 303rd, the speed and agility of the XM12E2s was made apparent, as the Regiment's M6 Light Tanks - despite weighing only a third as much - had difficulty keeping up with the new vehicle. However, the range of the XM12E2 with the 850 horsepower air-cooled XG850 engine remained a major limitation for the type. Due to this, a recommendation was submitted to CR Army Ordnance for a new engine with lower specific fuel consumption. This recommendation was finally met in late 2243 with the new XD750 diesel engine, a derivative of the XG850. By the time this change was approved, the 303rd had been operating their five XM12E2 tanks for over a year and a half, and the program itself was nearly five years old, yet still recommendations for changes were being submitted to CR Army Ordnance from factions both external and internal. It was at this point that the issue was brought to the Cascadian Congress, who decided that the CR Army must decide on a configuration for the new tank, or cancel the project. Unable to reconcile the conflicting needs and wants of the different branches, the Cascadian Army canceled the XM12 project and put the existing tanks in mothballs. An XM12E2 on troop trials with the 303rd in Ashford, Washington, Cascade Republic, 2242. XM12E2 Donward GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Crew: 4 Length (gun forward): 9.83 m Length (gun to rear): 8.81 m Length (w/o gun): 7.37 m Gun Overhang (gun forward): 2.41 m Width (over skirts): 3.47 m Width (without skirts): 3.35 m Height (to roof): 2.61 m Height (to 7.62 MG): 2.95 m Ground Clearance: 0.61 m Turret Ring Diameter (inside): 85 in Weight, Curb: 43,164 kg Weight, Gross: 45,490 kg Power to Weight Ratio (gross): 16.5 hp/t [late] Ground Pressure: 11.4 PSI PROTECTION Hull armor: Upper glacis - 4.4" at 28 degrees - 239mm LOS (slightly elliptical) Lower glacis - 3" at 44.6 degrees - 108mm LOS Side - 2" at 15 degrees, plus 1" side skirts spaced at 22-38" - 78.4mm LOS Turret armor: 0 degrees: 512mm at forehead, 240mm at nose, 186mm above ring 15 degrees: 502mm at forehead, 220mm at nose, 167mm above ring, 339mm sides 30 degrees: 358mm at forehead, 200mm at nose, 147mm above ring, 175mm sides 45 degrees: 262mm at forehead, 154mm at nose, 136mm above ring, 124mm sides ARMAMENT Primary: 100x685mmR XM42 L/52 Rifled Gun Traverse: Electrohydraulic and manual, 360 degrees Traverse Rate (max): 24 d/s, 15 seconds/360 degrees Elevation: Electrohydraulic and manual, +25/-10 degrees Elevation Rate: 15 d/s Firing Rate (max): 7 rounds/min Stabilizer: Vertical Secondary: (1) 20x140mm XM151 autocannon, coaxial (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, coaxial (1) .50 caliber M2 machine gun, commander's hatch (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, loader's position Provision for (1) 9mm M95 Submachine Gun AMMUNITION 42 rounds 100x685mmR 500 rounds 20x140mm 800 rounds .50 caliber 6,000 rounds 7.62mm (coaxial) 1,200 rounds 7.62mm (loader) 210 rounds 9mm 24 smoke grenades FIRE CONTROL AND VISION EQUIPMENT Primary Weapon: Direct: Gunner's Primary Sight Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Ballistic Calculator Stereoscopic Rangefinder Indirect: Azimuth Indicator Elevation Quadrant Gunner's Quadrant Vision Devices: Driver: Periscopes (3), Night Vision Commander: Periscope Vision Blocks (7), Rotatable Periscope (1), Weapon Sight (1) Gunner: Gunner's Primary Sight, Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Loader: Periscope (1) POWERPLANT XG850 850 hp air-cooled turbocharged V12 gasoline engine, 29.4 L displacement, cross-drive transmission [early] XD750 750 hp air-cooled turbocharged V12 diesel, 29.4 L displacement, cross-drive transmission [late] XM12E3 Donward GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Crew: 4 Length (gun forward): 9.86 m Length (gun to rear): 8.83 m Length (w/o gun): 7.37 m Gun Overhang (gun forward): 2.49 m Width (over skirts): 3.47 m Width (without skirts): 3.35 m Height (to roof): 2.61 m Height (to 7.62 MG): 2.95 m Ground Clearance: 0.61 m Turret Ring Diameter (inside): 85 in Weight, Curb: 43,313 kg Weight, Gross: 45,585 kg Power to Weight Ratio (gross): 18.8 hp/t Ground Pressure: 11.4 PSI PROTECTION Hull armor: Upper glacis - 4.4" at 28 degrees - 239mm LOS (slightly elliptical) Lower glacis - 3" at 44.6 degrees - 108mm LOS Side - 2" at 15 degrees, plus 1" side skirts spaced at 22-38" - 78.4mm LOS Turret armor: 0 degrees: 512mm at forehead, 240mm at nose, 186mm above ring 15 degrees: 502mm at forehead, 220mm at nose, 167mm above ring, 339mm sides 30 degrees: 358mm at forehead, 200mm at nose, 147mm above ring, 175mm sides 45 degrees: 262mm at forehead, 154mm at nose, 136mm above ring, 124mm sides ARMAMENT Primary: 120x640mmR XM43 L/44 Rifled Gun Traverse: Electrohydraulic and manual, 360 degrees Traverse Rate (max): 24 d/s, 15 seconds/360 degrees Elevation: Electrohydraulic and manual, +25/-10 degrees Elevation Rate: 12 d/s Firing Rate (max): 5 rounds/min Stabilizer: Vertical Secondary: (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, coaxial (1) .50 caliber M2 machine gun, commander's hatch (1) 7.62mm M240 machine gun, loader's position Provision for (1) 9mm M95 Submachine Gun AMMUNITION 36 rounds 120x640mmR 800 rounds .50 caliber 6,000 rounds 7.62mm (coaxial) 1,200 rounds 7.62mm (loader) 210 rounds 9mm 24 smoke grenades FIRE CONTROL AND VISION EQUIPMENT Primary Weapon: Direct: Gunner's Primary Sight Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Ballistic Calculator Stereoscopic Rangefinder Indirect: Azimuth Indicator Elevation Quadrant Gunner's Quadrant Vision Devices: Driver: Periscopes (3), Night Vision Commander: Periscope Vision Blocks (7), Rotatable Periscope (1), Weapon Sight (1) Gunner: Gunner's Primary Sight, Gunner's Auxiliary Sight Loader: Periscope (1) POWERPLANT XG850 850 hp air-cooled turbocharged V12 gasoline engine, 29.4 L displacement, cross-drive transmission
  19. 1 point
    I think every president we've had in recent memory has made money on a book deal. Most were ghost written. There's money to be made on all the Trump hate. It smacks me as just that, a cash grab.
  20. 1 point
    IAI releases these 2 documents in 30th anniversary of the Ofeq-1 satellite, which was Israel's first satellite and used for intelligence gathering.
  21. 1 point
    Mighty_Zuk

    Britons are in trouble

    And what capabilities exactly does the rendering show that BAE hasn't shown? If we remove the APS for a moment, we can see on both that they have new and modernized dual channel sights, both keep the TOGS' box, both add some form of warning system (if that is what the box w/dome near the gunner's sight on Rheinmetall's rendering is), whilst retaining the same gun. Rheinmetall offers a new gun, but that is also not required, just like the APS. Thus the only real difference is that Rheinmetall used the TES armor in its rendering, while BAE's model is stripped of all applique armor.
  22. 1 point
    2805662

    Britons are in trouble

    Challenger 2 Mark 2? Seriously? UK naming conventions are the worst.
  23. 1 point
    Syrian Army T-4/Pz4
  24. 1 point
    Domichan

    105x617 DM53 APFSDS-T?

    Hi SH_MM, this is definitely not a 105mm projectile. Source: I saw it last sunday in the WTS museum in Koblenz. It looks like it is 25 or 30mm, does not have a type designation, but was something experimental. Forgot to take a picture of the sign. I'll do that when I visit it again. Very interesting museum for people interested in experimenta; weapons and prototype vehicles. I can recommend going there. My fingers on the display for size: https://imgur.com/UIFyFvP
  25. 1 point
    EnsignExpendable

    Books About Tanks

    Another one of Pasholok's books is coming out in English. According to his LJ post, he doesn't intend on writing any Russian books any time soon, but will focus on working with English writers to fill in gaps in English language works on Soviet armour.
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