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An active protection system is a system (usually for a military application) designed to prevent line-of-sight guided anti-tank missiles/projectiles from acquiring and/or destroying a target. Electronic countermeasures that alter the electromagnetic, acoustic or other signature(s) of a target thereby altering the tracking and sensing behavior of an incoming threat (e.g., guided missile) are designated softkillmeasures. Measures that physically counterattack an incoming threat thereby destroying/altering its payload/warhead in such a way that the intended effect on the target is severely impeded are designated hardkill measures. Israel Rafael - Trophy APS (combat proven) The Trophy is a situational awareness and active protection hard kill system that operates in three major stages: Threat detection and threat tracking followed by hard kill countermeasure (Multiple Explosive Formed Penetrators – MEFP) activation and threat neutralization.The neutralization process takes place only if the threat is about to hit the platform. Trophy-HV The Trophy was declared operational by the IDF in August 2009 and is currently in full production. Merkava 4 tanks integrated with Trophy active protection systems are presently being deployed in combat areas along Israel's borders. Exceptional Capabilities ·360 Degree protection, while permitting sectors of the vehicle-mounted system to be rendered inactive when necessary for the protection of troops on the ground ·360 Degree situational awareness by detecting all incoming threats and identifying their launch position ·Extremely high elevation protection ·Neutralizes threats fired from very short range ·Neutralizes simultaneous threats arriving from one or more directions ·Minimum collateral damage ·Suitable for multiple platforms ·High kill probability while static or on the move ·Reduces platform weight The Trophy system is adaptable to any combat platform.Once a platform is chosen, a short trade study is completed to work out any integration issues that may arise.Numerous elements are taken into consideration for each vehicle variant or type. For vehicles with relatively basic or light armor, e.g. the Stryker, the Trophy provides full protection against all types of RPG (as well as other threats) due to the fact that the Trophy destroys these types of threats without detonation. Currently, the full Trophy HV system weighs 800 kg. Since space and weight will continue to be major issues on combat platforms, not only for current forces, but also for new vehicle programs, i.e. FCS / FRES, great efforts to miniaturize the electronics of the Trophy have been made.The result is additional systems for lighter vehicles: Trophy-MV The Trophy-MV offers the same hard kill capabilities as the Trophy-HV andincludes built-in soft kill capabilities as well. The Trophy-MV (previously Trophy II) is at TRL 7 and the first prototype is currently undergoing enhanced field testing. Trophy-MV a 450kg APS, for light- and medium-weight (10-30 ton) vehicles Trophy-LV This active protection hard kill system for light armored vehicles utilizes the same superior operating principles as the Trophy-HV and Trophy-MV at a fraction of the weight. Trophy-LV’s high kill probability against advanced threats, including the most sophisticated shoulder-launched AT rocket propelled grenades, makes it a significant force-multiplier at shorter ranges on the modern battlefield. The Trophy-LV’s dimensions are specially designed for easy integration and installation onto smaller platforms without impairing system performance. This ensures 360 protection including the vehicle’s windows and doors with minimal risk of collateral damage. The Trophy-LV is an all-round efficient, affordable, and cost-effective solution that is currently undergoing field testing in a variety of operational scenarios. Operational Concept 1.Radar identifies and tracks incoming threat/s and delivers the exact threat launching point to a battle management system or weapon station. 2.The computer identifies the threat, determines whether it will hit the vehicle, and if so: 3.A ballistic cover opens. 4.A countermeasure head slews to the proper location. 5.The computer continues to track, acquire, and plot the best intercept solution. 6.The countermeasure is launched and neutralizes the threat. The Trophy systems have a very high kill probability and testing has shown them to be successful against all known CE threats (RPG, ATGM, tank-fired CE, etc.) The systems’ average collateral damage is estimated at a <1% chance of a dismounted soldier being injured by Trophy or an incoming threat. In response to concerns that the RPG-30 had fallen into the hands of Hezbollah fighters, Israel Defense reported that the Rafael weapons development authority developed a defense system called the "Trench Coat" that can counteract the RPG-30, by utilizing a 360-degree radar to detect all threats and, in the case of one, launch 17 projectiles, one of which should strike the incoming missile. Israel IMI - Iron Fist APS IRON FIST provides a combined Soft-and Hard-Kill Active protection System, adaptable to various platforms from light vehicles to heavy AFVs. IRON FIST employs a sophisticated, multi-sensor early warning system, utilizing both infrared and radar sensors, providing the crew with enhanced situational awareness and early warning from potential threats. Upon a threat warning, the modular system employs the multi-layered defenses, comprising electro-optical jammers, Instantaneous smoke screens and, if necessary, an interceptor-based hard kill Active Protection System (APS). The IRON FISTeffectively protects against the full spectrum of Anti-Tank (AT) threats including AT Rockets fired at short range, in open area or urban environment, AT Guided Missiles, High Explosive AT and Kinetic Energy rounds. The IRON FIST is currently in advanced development at IMI. The company has installed the system for demonstrations in light and heavy armored vehicles, where IRON FIST capability demonstrators underwent full end-to-end interception tests, against all threat types, operating on the move and in urban scenarios. In these installations, IRON FIST proved highly effective, with its wide angle protection, minimal weight penalty and modest integration requirements. IRON FIST APS was selected by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) as the Active Protection System designed to protect the Namer heavy infantry fighting vehicle. Russia Kolomna - Arena APS The Arena (Russian: Арена) is an active protection system (APS) developed at Russia's Kolomna-based Engineering Design Bureau for the purpose of protecting armoured fighting vehicles from destruction by light anti-tank weapons, anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM), and missiles with top attack warheads. It uses a Doppler radar to detect incoming warheads. Upon detection, a defensive rocket is fired that detonates near the inbound threat, destroying it before it hits the vehicle. Arena is the successor to Drozd, a Soviet active protection system from the late 1970s, which was installed on several T-55s during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. The system improved the vehicle's survivability rate, increasing it by up to 80%. Drozd was followed by Shtora in the late 1980s, which used an electro-magnetic jammer to confuse inbound enemy anti-tank missiles and rockets. In late 1994 the Russian Army deployed a large number of armoured fighting vehicles to Chechnya, where they were ambushed and suffered heavy casualties. The effectiveness of Chechen rocket-propelled grenades against Russian combat vehicles prompted the Kolomenskoye machine-building design bureau to devise the Arena active protection system in the early and mid-1990s. An export variant, Arena-E, was also developed. The system has been tested on the T-80UM-1, demonstrated at Omsk in 1997, and was considered for use on the South Korean K2 Black Panther main battle tank. The Arena system was primarily designed to defeat threats such as the rocket propelled grenade and the anti-tank missile, including newer anti-tank missiles with longer ranges. The active protection system can protect against missiles fired from both infantry carried rocket launchers and from helicopters, which attack the vehicle directly or by overflying it. Modern rocket propelled grenades can penetrate almost 1 metre (39 in) of steel armour, posing a serious threat to tanks operating in environments of asymmetric warfare. Therefore, increased tank protection requires either an increase in armour thickness and weight, or alternatively the use of an active protection system, like Arena. US Raytheon - Quick Kill Raytheon's Quick Kill™ Active Protection System (APS) can intercept and shoot down an extended set number threats, including rocket-propelled grenades and anti-tank missiles with surgical accuracy with minimum potential for collateral damage. Quick Kill can provide protection from these threats in many different mission applications, such as combat vehicles, ships or fixed sites. Raytheon's approach to this technological breakthrough is equivalent to firing a weapon around a corner and hitting another weapon, while both speed through the air at hundreds of meters per second - literally in the blink of an eye. Raytheon was the first company to develop and then prove this concept of engagement by successfully intercepting an RPG at close range. The Quick Kill system consists of a multi-mission, fire-control radar that detects and tracks incoming threats, combined with hard-kill countermeasures that serve as a hit avoidance system, enabling multi-tracking and simultaneous multi-engagement of enemy fire for vehicle and squad protection. Raytheon's APS is based on the same radar technology deployed to perform sense and warn operations at active Forward Operating Bases and has been extremely successful in providing timely warning against rocket and mortar attacks. the system's vertical launch countermeasure is unique in its ability to engage threats fired from any angle or elevation, providing all weather, full 360 degree hemispherical vehicle and crew protection with each countermeasure. Quick Kill is a mature and highly advanced system that provides force protection capability that is essential to the future survivability of combat vehicles. US Artis - Iron Curtain Iron Curtain is an active protection system (APS) designed by Artis, an American technology development and manufacturing firm headquartered in Herndon, Virginia. The system is designed to protect military vehicles and other assets by intercepting threats such as rocket-propelled grenades and rendering them inert. It has been included as part of the joint services' MRAP program as well as the Army's Ground Combat Vehicle program. Iron Curtain uses two independent sensors, radar and optical, high-speed computing, and tightly controlled counter-munitions to minimize the false alarm rate and increase accuracy. The system, which began in 2005 as a DARPA program, is able to defeat threats even if fired from an extremely close range. Germany Rheinmetall - AMAP-ADS APS The ADS-Active Defence-System belongs to a new generation of standoff active protection technologies. It is one of the world's most advanced and effective systems for protecting military vehicles of practically every weight class from operational threats, especially light antitank weapons, guided missiles and certain improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The ADS system is based on the hard-kill principle, in which incoming projectiles are detected and instantly destroyed by directed energy immediately before reaching their target. It is the only high-performance close-in defence system which minimizes collateral damage in the vicinity of the vehicle. Turkish Aselan - Akkor APS The Akkor APS includes a centralised control unit and internal display, with the soft-kill system including laser-warning receivers and smoke dispensers; the hard-kill system includes four radar units for 360° coverage and two twin-cell trainable launchers armed with two hard-kill unguided 'smart' munitions. Serial production of the Akkor system is envisaged to begin in 2017 so that the system will be available for Turkey's first batch of 250 Altay MBTs. The company says it has been funding the development of Akkor since 2008 and has been conducting field tests of the radar, central computer systems, and the hard-kill munitions since 2010. Based on cross-sections of the Akkor 'smart' munitions seen at IDEF, Akkor's kill-mechanism seems to rely on a high-explosive concussive blast effect to defeat incoming threats. The 'smart' element comes from the detonation method, which has variously been reported as being proximity-based or down to an intelligent fuze programmed prior to launch by the Akkor control system. Ukraine Microtek - Zaslon APS The Zaslon active protection suite was developed by Ukrainmash, a Ukrainian AFV modernization firm that specializes in developing add-on armor, active protection systems and upgrade kits for T-72, T-55 and BMP armored vehicles. The Zaslon system consists of a radar based detection module, a guidance module and a customer specified number of static counter-measures modules. Each counter-measure module packs two explosive charges, which are ejected toward the target before detonating and forming a dense fragmentation ring that destroys incoming projectiles on impact. Modules can point forward, sideways or vertically, to protect from top attacks. The system’s response time is 0.1 seconds. A typical installation protects 150 – 180 degrees, and is capable of defeating incoming projectiles at speeds between 70 and 1,200 m/sec. It can be used to protect fixed sites or armored vehicles. Depending on the protection level required, the system adds from 50 to 130 kg. per module. Swedish Aerospace - Leds 150 The system is able to counter most known threats against armoured vehicles with soft and hard kill methods. LEDS-150 consists of laser warning sensors, an ADC-150 Active Defence Controller, a number of MCTS Munition Confirmation and Tracking Sensors, and High Speed Directed Launchers, HSDL, which allows the combination of soft- and hard-kill countermeasure deployment capability to the platform, optional displays, and interconnecting harnesses. This system uses the Denel Dynamics Mongoose-1 missile to destroy the incoming threat in 5 to 15 meters distance from the protected vehicle.LEDS-150 covers all 360 degrees azimuth; its elevation coverage is from -15 to +65 degrees. France Thales - Shark APS Shark is a ground-breaking solution for vehicle protection, using a revolutionary optopyrotechnic system. It has been awarded by the Prix Chanson this year. The Prix Chanson, named after Engineer General Paul Chanson, who created it, is awarded each year by the French defence procurement agency in recognition of an outstanding contribution to progress in the field of land armaments. This year, Thales subsidiary TDA and the Institut Saint Louis have been selected for their work in the field of optopyrotechnic initiation and its application in countermeasures for the active protection of armored vehicles and their occupants. This innovation has been brought to a successful conclusion, with the concrete application SHARK. This ground-breaking technology actually utilizes several optopyrotechnic detonators with laser ignition. The SHARK active protection system is designed to protect armored fighting vehicles from shaped charge (Rocket Propelled Grenade and anti-tank missiles) and IED (Improvised Explosive Device) while degrading the potential threat of KE threats. The system provides full 360 degrees hemispherical coverage, with distributed, overlapping sensor-countermeasures modules located all around the vehicle. Each module covers a specific sector, detecting any threat fired toward the vehicle and engaging it by blast effect at close-in range, specifically designed to comply with operational restrictions of specific environments. S.Korea - Kaps APS The Korean Active Protection System (KAPS) is an indigenously developed hard-kill active protection system designed to protect the K2 from anti-tank threats. It uses a three-dimensional detection and tracking radar and a thermal imager to detect incoming threats. Warheads can be detected out to 150 meters from the tank, and a defensive rocket is fired to destroy them at 10 - 15 meters away. The KAPS can neutralize rocket-propelled grenades and anti-tank guided missiles. The system may be installed on other platforms in the future like warships, helicopters, and buildings. Unit price per system is ₩670 million ($600,000)