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Something interesting about Merkava III's armor protection(in Chinese): Some of these images are come from Chinese course book《装甲防护技术基础》(The basic technology of armor protection), and others are

Consider the geometry of actual armor without ignoring the LFP. In addition, the mass of the ammo is almost insignificant (25 kg per round and 40 or so rounds in the hull is 1 ton, vs 2 tons each

Couple more of the Mk.3-based Ofek    

5 hours ago, LoooSeR said:

Was already posted, such things probably better to link in that thread.


I honestly found the passive armor information offerings to be a lot more interesting. Especially, the part where they have a wheeled IFV (Eitan) going to level 6.

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1 hour ago, MRose said:


I honestly found the passive armor information offerings to be a lot more interesting. Especially, the part where they have a wheeled IFV (Eitan) going to level 6.

The Eitan is not rated at level 6. 

Rafael only publicly lists certain products, but in the end the solution it creates for the customer is tailor-made and will often deviate from the standard levels.


Back to the Eitan, it is not a NATO vehicle. Neither are the Merkava and Namer shown in the video. The reactive armor Rafael makes for these vehicles is actually hybrid, not reactive alone. Meaning there's a thick layer of passive armor before the ERA, or the reactive armor could be entirely NxRA. 


The Eitan uses 2 very thick walls of armor, and between them an ERA array.

It thus gives it substantially higher protection levels than STANAG 4569 level 6, and a very high level of protection against HEAT.

The front lacks the ERA layers but its passive armor is substantially thicker even over highly sloped surfaces, than competing vehicles that only strive to reach level 6.

That is because the reference threat for the IDF is one that will use elevation to its advantage, so there's less reliance on sloped armor designs.

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6 hours ago, VPZ said:


Hello VPZ, 

Purely from a modelling perspective, do you have an image showing the roof of the Ofek, please? It is the only area I don’t have an image of that I may scratch build this in 1/35. Thank you

6 hours ago, VPZ said:



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2 hours ago, Newtonk said:

Purely from a modelling perspective, do you have an image showing the roof of the Ofek, please? It is the only area I don’t have an image of that I may scratch build this in 1/35. Thank you




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screenshots from this video

























































































this article (in Hebrew) is accompanied by another video on Carmel program demonstrators 

some screenshots





















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Israel MOD Evaluates Future Concepts for Armored Warfare

 Tamir Eshel
Aug 4, 2019
rafael_carmel_1021.jpg The Carmel variant presented by Rafael. Photo: IMOD

Israel’s Ministry of Defense Defense Research and Development Directorate (DR&DD) provided today a glimpse into the Carmel technology demonstration program, evaluating future combat vehicle technologies for the late 2020 and beyond.

DR&DD invited three industry groups to provide technology demonstrators for the program – Rafael, Elbit Systems and IAI. The demonstrators were all based on an M-113 used as a platform surrogate for the combat vehicle. The future platform will utilize a new chassis powered by a diesel generator powering a rechargeable battery bank to provide the electricity for propulsion and all systems.


During the first phase of the Carmel Program, a significant challenge was presented to the three major defense industries in Israel: to prove the feasibility of an AFV that is operated by only two combat soldiers, with closed hatches. The two persons employ different sensors onboard and off-board, including radars, thermal imaging sensors, video cameras, acoustic and lasers and drones, all inputs are fused and displayed to the crew for situational assessment and response.

elbit_carmel_1021.jpg The Carmel variant presented by Elbit Systems. Photo: IMOD

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iai_carmel_1021.jpg The Carmel variant presented by IAI. Photo: IMOD

Each group took a different approach to meet the objectives – a light (35 ton) combat vehicle armed with medium caliber auto-cannon and missiles, and operated by a crew of two, with an additional position for a third person operating specialist systems. Designed for manned operation, Carmel is equipped with sensors, artificial intelligence, and advanced automation and system autonomy thus reducing operator workload. This approach enables human operators to take decisions and actions in a timely and optimal manner.The Carmel Program also includes the development of other capabilities not presented in the demo day, such as the platform with hybrid-electric propulsion and energy storage with high capacity to support the electronic systems on board, signature reduction, including active camouflage, multi-task radar providing both self defense (active protection) from anti-tank threats as well as detection and tracking of drones, vehicles and humans, blue force tracking and various types of weapon systems, including direct and indirect fires, self-protection and high-energy lasers. Another aspect to be pursued in a later stage is teamwork – the synergy between several Carmel vehicles, sharing information and tasks using broadband connectivity. ‘Manned-Unmanned Teaming’, will evaluate the advantages of augmenting the small crew with the capabilities of associated robotic team members.

The lessons learned from the recent evaluation will be assessed and presented to the DR&DD for further action. DR&DD is expected to recommend a technology mix for further development and integration in a future platform or select a single provider or a team to act as a prime contractor. Among the technologies already selected for integration in future platforms is the Iron Vision helmet display from Elbit Systems, that will be integrated in the next phase of the Merkava Main Battle Tank – the Merkava Mk4 Barak. Other systems could be included in the future in the Eitan APC and Namer heavy armored infantry combat 


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