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General cars and vehicles thread.

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https://yuripasholok.livejournal.com/11401513.html

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   ZIL-118 "Youth" was a unique phenomenon for the domestic auto industry, and for the world too. This bus was created with parts of the government limousine ZIL-111, while the bus even served as a minibus taxi. For its time, vehicle was more than interesting, and it is more pleasant that such a machine was restored to a very good condition. One of the not very numerous light spots of the domestic auto industry.

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35 minutes ago, Oedipus Wreckx-n-Effect said:

Looks like I'm replacing the half shaft, pads, and rotors on my truck as well. Picking it up tomorrow. That kicked the cost up a bit.

 

That sucks. 

 

I once took an 84 Blazer in for an alignment, it wandered and the steering was sloppy, steering box was not broke out of the frame and the rage joint was good. The guy doing the work was a pal I grew up with and did stuff at cost, so I knew I wasn't getting ripped off.  He calls, and said, it would align, to much wheel play, maybe the wheel bearings were shot. I say whatever, just let me know, he calls me back and says, it needs wheel bearings, and HUBS, because the wheel bearings had not been serviced, and the races were loose in the hubs. The guy I bought it from thought maintenance meant fixing it when it broke... Anyway,  I helped put it all back together when I got off work, and luckily the auto locking hubs were in like new condition, lol and went right in and I never once had a problem with them. 

 

I traded an AR-15 for this thing, so it was still a good deal, but it had other lack of maintenance woes I had to fix, and ultimately lead to its demise.   The funniest thing about the truck is the previous owner was like 6,3 350, and had bent the seat frame back.  I got in the back seat and bent it back into place, but the frame was weakened and over time it would slowly tilt back. So I cut a 2 by 4 to fit and wedged it into the back seat.  I had class back then. 

 

dirtyblazer3-1600x841.jpg

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13 hours ago, Jeeps_Guns_Tanks said:

 

That sucks. 

 

I once took an 84 Blazer in for an alignment, it wandered and the steering was sloppy, steering box was not broke out of the frame and the rage joint was good. The guy doing the work was a pal I grew up with and did stuff at cost, so I knew I wasn't getting ripped off.  He calls, and said, it would align, to much wheel play, maybe the wheel bearings were shot. I say whatever, just let me know, he calls me back and says, it needs wheel bearings, and HUBS, because the wheel bearings had not been serviced, and the races were loose in the hubs. The guy I bought it from thought maintenance meant fixing it when it broke... Anyway,  I helped put it all back together when I got off work, and luckily the auto locking hubs were in like new condition, lol and went right in and I never once had a problem with them. 

 

I traded an AR-15 for this thing, so it was still a good deal, but it had other lack of maintenance woes I had to fix, and ultimately lead to its demise.   The funniest thing about the truck is the previous owner was like 6,3 350, and had bent the seat frame back.  I got in the back seat and bent it back into place, but the frame was weakened and over time it would slowly tilt back. So I cut a 2 by 4 to fit and wedged it into the back seat.  I had class back then. 

 

dirtyblazer3-1600x841.jpg

Haha nice! It's crazy the kind of effect it makes.

 

I ran to the shop this morning (literally) and picked up the truck. My God, the difference is night and day. It handles five times better I swear. Feels smoother down the road. And they priced me fair for what they did. 

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Rolls-Royce Silver Wraith 

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   This car was made in 1956 by the British car body maker Hooper & Co. commissioned by the French businessman Nubar Gulbenkian. The car was manufactured on a Rolls-Royce Silver Wraith chassis with a wheelbase of 3,300 mm and a 4.9-liter l6 engine, as well as a transparent plexiglass roof.

 

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Volvo: "Safety? Fuck safety, we don't want to spend on safety!"

 

Volvo 1800ES. 

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   The Volvo 1800ES twin-seat wagon is a development of the Volvo 1800 coupe, which was mass-produced since 1963. Unlike previous versions, the new version received a luggage compartment of increased volume, closed with a frameless glass door. In the early stages, the 1800ES variants created by Italian designers Sergio Coggiola and Pietro Frua were considered, however, the leadership of the Swedish concern considered these models to be too futuristic, and they preferred the project of the chief designer of the concern Jan Wilsgaard.

   The wagon was launched into mass production in 1972. The car was equipped with a 4-cylinder in-line engine of 1,986 cc and 123 hp. The car could be equipped with a 4-speed manual or 3-speed automatic transmissions.

   Serial production of the Volvo 1800ES did not last long - in 1973, the Volvo 1800 was removed from the assembly line after 8,078 cars made. The reason for this decision was the tightening of safety requirements for cars in the United States and the reluctance of Volvo management to invest in upgrading vehicle to meet these new standards.

 

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55 minutes ago, LoooSeR said:

Volvo: "Safety? Fuck safety, we don't want to spend on safety!"

 

Volvo 1800ES. 

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Many foreign makers pulled out of the U.S. market as a result of those dubious "safety" standards.

 

Ever wonder why some like the MG or the 240/260 Z ended up with silly looking bumpers?

"Safety Standards". (Meant more to reduce insurance payouts for minor fender-benders, as the telescoping "battering ram" bumpers were useless in much other than the slowest of collisions)

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hhP8XvT.jpg

 

I took my car into the garage today, to do some general maintenance.  Was going to change the break liquid, but I bought the wrong type. So I tried changing oil, but the drain plug was so stuck and hard to get that I needed to lift the car, and since I lacked the stands to have it on, so waited with that too.  Then I began changing the drum break pads. I could not find the lift point, so in my half hypothermic, half feverish state I mistook the side channel for the lift point and did this:

 

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After swearing a lot and getting a better jack, I found the correct point and starting dismounting the drum breaks. 

 

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Of course, one of the nuts for the wheel got stuck in the wrench, which a had to knock lose with a hammer and screwdriver. 

 

 

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After a lot of messing with the breaks to get the got damn pads of, I could not get the drum on.  Furious beyond belief, I went in to defrost and ease my back pain.  Now I feel very sick. 

 

All in all, a typical day, working on the car in -12 C. 

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3 hours ago, Xoon said:

hhP8XvT.jpg

 

I took my car into the garage today, to do some general maintenance.  Was going to change the break liquid, but I bought the wrong type. So I tried changing oil, but the drain plug was so stuck and hard to get that I needed to lift the car, and since I lacked the stands to have it on, so waited with that too.  Then I began changing the drum break pads. I could not find the lift point, so in my half hypothermic, half feverish state I mistook the side channel for the lift point and did this:

 

KE1vULL.jpg

 

 

After swearing a lot and getting a better jack, I found the correct point and starting dismounting the drum breaks. 

 

xVPMdww.jpg

 

Of course, one of the nuts for the wheel got stuck in the wrench, which a had to knock lose with a hammer and screwdriver. 

 

 

0n41V4r.jpg

 

After a lot of messing with the breaks to get the got damn pads of, I could not get the drum on.  Furious beyond belief, I went in to defrost and ease my back pain.  Now I feel very sick. 

 

All in all, a typical day, working on the car in -12 C. 

Most (SAE/DOT) brake fluids are interchangeable, barring the more exotic fluids like pure silicone, etc.

That aside, easy way to "change" the fluid is to rig up a suction jar using a vacuum.

Use a large glass jar, pole two holes in the lid. One for the "inlet" and one for the vacuum.  Use plastic tube, run one long line through the lid, and then a shorter one to the crevice tool of the vacuum. Seal this with tape, and make sure it just pokes through the lid.

The "suction" line needs to almost reach the bottom of the jar.

 

Now fire up the vacuum and suck the fluid from the brake master cylinder reservoir. Add clean fluid.  if you're really worried, stick the end of the sucker hose over the bleeders and crack them with the vac running. Have someone add fluid at the top, and  pull a vac on the jar til you see clean fluid.  Do this on all four wheels.

 

The damage is from rust.Misplacing the jack just pointed it out.

 

Four Ways are shit on anything other than solid lugs. Use a socket and breaker bar to get them off (especially since every shop out there loves putting MAXIMUM HAMFIST on the nuts with a 1/2" impact).

 

Those are the first automotive drums I've seen with no (visible) adjuster.

Normally you back the adjuster off when installing new shoes, to allow the (likely unturned)  drum to go on easily.  Then you'd mount the wheel, spin it and bring the adjuster up til it drags, then back it off 3~5 "clicks".

 

See if there is an adjusting wedge on the anchors or similar to allow one to adjust the shoes, and back it off.

 

 

Oh, and for really stuck drain plugs?

Buy a new one, then use a big pair of vise grips to take the old one out.  If it starts coming out hard, you have serious issues, and some fuckwit has overtorqued the drainbolt, and you may need a new pan, (or  a Helicoil or to chase the threads with a tap.).

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FmTvqwJ.jpg

 

Finally got the drum on, found the adjuster. 

 

 

19 hours ago, Meplat said:

Most (SAE/DOT) brake fluids are interchangeable, barring the more exotic fluids like pure silicone, etc.

So you believe that replacing  the break fluid from DOT 3 to DOT 4 is safe? 

It says on the container: "ONLY USE DOT 3". The car is pretty old though, 1995-1999 model. 

 

 

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That aside, easy way to "change" the fluid is to rig up a suction jar using a vacuum.

Use a large glass jar, pole two holes in the lid. One for the "inlet" and one for the vacuum.  Use plastic tube, run one long line through the lid, and then a shorter one to the crevice tool of the vacuum. Seal this with tape, and make sure it just pokes through the lid.

The "suction" line needs to almost reach the bottom of the jar.

 

Now fire up the vacuum and suck the fluid from the brake master cylinder reservoir. Add clean fluid.  if you're really worried, stick the end of the sucker hose over the bleeders and crack them with the vac running. Have someone add fluid at the top, and  pull a vac on the jar til you see clean fluid.  Do this on all four wheels.

I do have a oil pump, do you think it could do the same job? 

 

 

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The damage is from rust.Misplacing the jack just pointed it out.

That is true, it makes me feel better, since I would have to remove the rust anyways. Going to remove the rust and weld shut the hole. I am thinking about just gluing on plate though. 

 

For now I just taped over the hole to stop snow and mud from getting into the channel. Luckily it is not actually the structural channel, just exterior cosmetics. 

 

 

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Four Ways are shit on anything other than solid lugs. Use a socket and breaker bar to get them off (especially since every shop out there loves putting MAXIMUM HAMFIST on the nuts with a 1/2" impact).

Yeah, its pretty shit, I am going to get a better tool soon.  And yeah, the concept of "correct torque" is non existent here. A friend of mine literally used all his weight and force to tightened his wheels.  Poor threads. 

 

 

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Those are the first automotive drums I've seen with no (visible) adjuster.

Normally you back the adjuster off when installing new shoes, to allow the (likely unturned)  drum to go on easily.  Then you'd mount the wheel, spin it and bring the adjuster up til it drags, then back it off 3~5 "clicks".

 

See if there is an adjusting wedge on the anchors or similar to allow one to adjust the shoes, and back it off.

2peMJlu.jpg

 

I found the adjuster, hidden in between there. Messed with it for a bit. It was adjusted all the way out, explaining why I could not get on the pads. Though it is a pain to accurately adjust loved to jump several teeth. 

 

 

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Oh, and for really stuck drain plugs?

Buy a new one, then use a big pair of vise grips to take the old one out.  If it starts coming out hard, you have serious issues, and some fuckwit has overtorqued the drainbolt, and you may need a new pan, (or  a Helicoil or to chase the threads with a tap.).

The problem is that the plug broke, snapped in half. Now the hole is permanently plugged. I either I drill it out and tap a new thread, or I just replace the entire thing. Its only a L shaped metal piece, so I might find the part laying around. 

 

 

16 hours ago, Oedipus Wreckx-n-Effect said:

@Xoon do you have drum brakes on all four wheels?

No, ventilated discs at front, and drums in the rear. So all the shoes are equal length. 

 

The car is a Mazda 323F GLX 1,8L (BA) (EU) 1998 model. 

 

 

 

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Does anyone know what this is? The cog and the tap sticking out. 

It is connected with a hose/cable. 

 

My car lacks ABS or traction control, but it could be bought originally as extra equipment. 

Is it the ABS sensor? 

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Its a metal piece, close to the metal cog connected to the axle. On the opposite side there is a cable connected with a nipple that looks way to flimsy to be a hydraulic coupling. There is also another hose which is way beefier which looks exactly like a hydraulic hose. Considering it is a single acting piston, it should not need more than one hose. 

 

The thing looks like a crude axle pulse encoder, basically every time the metal piece passes the cog teeth, a metal sensor detects the metal and sends a pulse to the ECU/ABS controller/thing and it counts it. 360 degrees equal the amount of teeth, the more teeth, the higher resolution.

 

Its either the cars wheel speed sensor or the ABS wheel speed sensor or both.

 

Found this:
abs-speed-sensor-image.jpg

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I agree, ABS sensors normally do double duty to run the speedo.

 

1 hour ago, Xoon said:
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The problem is that the plug broke, snapped in half. Now the hole is permanently plugged. I either I drill it out and tap a new thread, or I just replace the entire thing. Its only a L shaped metal piece, so I might find the part laying around. 

 

A left handed drill might get it out

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On 1/20/2019 at 12:56 PM, Xoon said:

FmTvqwJ.jpg

 

Finally got the drum on, found the adjuster. 

 

 

So you believe that replacing  the break fluid from DOT 3 to DOT 4 is safe? 

It says on the container: "ONLY USE DOT 3". The car is pretty old though, 1995-1999 model. 

 

 

I do have a oil pump, do you think it could do the same job? 

 

 

That is true, it makes me feel better, since I would have to remove the rust anyways. Going to remove the rust and weld shut the hole. I am thinking about just gluing on plate though. 

 

For now I just taped over the hole to stop snow and mud from getting into the channel. Luckily it is not actually the structural channel, just exterior cosmetics. 

 

 

Yeah, its pretty shit, I am going to get a better tool soon.  And yeah, the concept of "correct torque" is non existent here. A friend of mine literally used all his weight and force to tightened his wheels.  Poor threads. 

 

 

2peMJlu.jpg

 

I found the adjuster, hidden in between there. Messed with it for a bit. It was adjusted all the way out, explaining why I could not get on the pads. Though it is a pain to accurately adjust loved to jump several teeth. 

 

 

The problem is that the plug broke, snapped in half. Now the hole is permanently plugged. I either I drill it out and tap a new thread, or I just replace the entire thing. Its only a L shaped metal piece, so I might find the part laying around. 

 

DOT3 and DOT4 are (as far a 99% of those using either are concerned) interchangeable, and compatable.

 

A vacuum pulls a constant, that's what you want. You don't need a high vacuum, just a steady one.

My first "power bleeder" used an old tube evacuator, the stem from a tube, and a pickle jar. And a lot of RTV silicone.

 

For a temporary fix, score some of the aluminum foil tape used for AC service.  Clean the area well, and put a layer on top and bottom, then bias.

For a longer term fix,  flattened coffee cans and a pop riveter, plus roofing asphalt will last an amazingly long time.

 

As to the drain plug, I'd just plan for a new pan. You can still change the oil, you just need a bit of stiff tube that will slip down the dipstick tube, and reach the bottom of the pan. Then use your improvised brake bleeder, scaled up to a 5 gallon bucket with a tight lid.  (This is actually how a lot of modern cars do oil changes, by sucking the oil out the dipstick tube).

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If it's just there to cover some soft foam for crash purposes I bet they could just as well have used some vacuum formed plastic at a lower weight, but that wouldn't have the carbon/aramid a e s t h e t i c

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19 minutes ago, Oedipus Wreckx-n-Effect said:



Physics is hard, guys.

Wiish I'd recorded the time I pulled down a huge palm with the M-37. 

Just ran a chain from a deadman to the front lifting eyes, then  used the winch to pull the tree over. 

All with maybe 100 HP, and no asshattery.

 

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58 minutes ago, Oedipus Wreckx-n-Effect said:



Physics is hard, guys.

 

I've pulled stumps with trucks before.

 

*Shrug*

 

Edit: Now the dude trying to pull an old growth stump with a Landcruiser was special...

 

Edit Edit: Also fuckers are standing too close to the tow chains/straps...

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13 minutes ago, Donward said:

 

I've pulled stumps with trucks before.

 

*Shrug*

 

Edit: Now the dude trying to pull an old growth stump with a Landcruiser was special...

 

Edit Edit: Also fuckers are standing too close to the tow chains/straps...

 

They are ok, cause Mythbusters said people being hurt by flying broken wire ropes is a myth!

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Ravaillier Canot-Voiture-Touriste amphibious car.

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   This car was created in 1907 by the French inventor Jules Julien Ravalier. In fact it was all-metal boat mounted on wheels. The amphibian had rear-wheel drive, was equipped with a "Gontallier" 20-horsepower 4-cylinder gasoline engine, had a three speed manual transmission; on the water it was moving using a propeller. The wheels of the car were made of galvanized steel and had rubber tires. Only single vehicle was made.

 

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      I'll be approaching this issue regards to efficiency, safety, production, and storage of many elements. We'll first discuss what hydrogen is.
       

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen
       
       
      The Wiki gives a ton of great information. Most of you will know the basics. It's a gas at STP, contains a single valence electron in it's 1s shell (“shell” or cloud of probability derived by shrodinger's blah blah blah Physical Chemistry nonsense, don't make me do that derivation again). It was first artificially made by a guy named Cavendish, and is found naturally as a diatomic molecule.
       
      This diatomic molecule also really likes to explode if it gets near an energy source. H2 combustion is well documented, and releases 286 kJ/Mol.
       
      In fact, it can undergo combustion at as low as 4% concentration with air. That's low.
       
      Hydrogen's low molecular weight makes it the lightest gas around. This was capitalized during the second to last turn of the century, where mighty Zeppelins pushed through the sky like herds of giant sky manatees.
       

      http://smhttp.41037.nexcesscdn.net/80153AD/magento/media/catalog/product/cache/1/thumbnail/750x/17f82f742ffe127f42dca9de82fb58b1/m/i/misc156_2.jpg
      Large enough to fit Colli-man's collection of miss-matched socks
       
      Germany loved these guys, and for a while they were all the rage in luxurious travel. Indeed, it was certainly the 20th century now! We had Airships, the Haber Process that was fueling an industrial revolution, and all of physics was completely solved! Thanks, Maxwell!
       
      (And then came the ultraviolet catastrophe, but that's another topic.)
       
      However, I mentioned above that hydrogen is extremely flammable at even very low concentrations within air. This fact really sunk the airship industry with a certain spectacular disaster.
       

      http://www.hipstersofthecoast.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/hindinburg-crashing-burning-640x420.jpg
      German Engineering, or Masonic Zion plot?
       
      It's easy to skip over this picture entirely. We've all seen it so many times (Unless you're one of my tutoring students, who look at me like I've got two heads when I mention it. “The hinda-what?”).
       
      But, this was the end of an era. Static charges ignited the hydrogen sacks that kept the big rigid frame afloat. And though we could have used Helium, a much more stable gas, the damage was done. No one would step foot near a rigid airship again.
       
      (Also our world's supply of Helium is finite and diminishing very very quickly. It would be wasted in airships. But again, another topic another time)
       
      Let's get back to the Hydrogen Fuelcell. What exactly is it, and how does it work?
       
      The basic model is shown below.
       

      https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/63/Proton_Exchange_Fuel_Cell_Diagram.svg/2000px-Proton_Exchange_Fuel_Cell_Diagram.svg.png
       
      This diagram is for a Proton Exchange Fuel Cell. The proton here is simply a hydrogen that's been stripped of its single electron. A fuel cell works by having very special membranes carefully constructed to permit the passage of a positively charged ion, but not the negatively charged electron. This travels through another path, leading to a voltage across the cell. This voltage can be used to power any electrical device.
       
      This is an oversimplification of how the device works, but it's a start.
       
      The benefits of such a device include the shear efficiency that it can have. When properly insulated and owing to proper low-resistance connections, these devices are pushing out efficiencies twice that of internal combustion engines. Which, despite what many places attempt to sell you, are actually quite thermodynamically efficient. These proton based fuel cells have great cold-start characteristics and energy density. Their outputs can actually be very high.
       
      Indeed, these fuel cells are efficient at all power outputs as well. Their efficiency does not vary with flow of fuel source either.
       
      Their temperatures can be as low as 80 degrees C. However, usually they are kept above 100 degrees C because steam is far more manageable than liquid water byproduct.
       
      So with all of this information, you're probably wondering why haven't we started putting these into all sorts of places. This post is about personal vehicles, however, and I'll get right back to that.
       
      No. I disagree completely with them being used in personal vehicles.
       
      While I love fuel cells as a power device, their use in personal vehicles is greatly limited. One of the biggest engineering hurdles is the flammability and storage of pure hydrogen. Since hydrogen has such a low molecular weight, to obtain a large enough amount to power a personal vehicle would require a very high pressure container. If you remember back to your Chemistry classes in high school, you may remember the Ideal Gas Equation. Hydrogen is pretty close to an Ideal Gas. As close as you'll get, really. The Ideal Gas Law, in actual use, is only about 84% accurate when used to guess thermodynamic systems. For hydrogen it's much higher.
       
      PV=nRT, where n is the number of moles. Keeping everything but Pressure and number of moles the same, to increase the number of moles directly increases the pressure. And H2, having a molecular weight of 2 Grams per Mole, would require a ton of moles to get a decent amount of the gas.
       
      A very high pressure container of pure hydrogen gas in a vehicle that routinely travels at 70 mph. Which is statistically guaranteed to be in an accident in its lifespan.
       
      The Germans are watching this and going “Nein Nein Nein!”
       
      http://lmgtfy.com/?q=how+many+car+crashes+per+day+in+the+US
       
      According to this nifty search, over 3,000 people die per day in the US due to vehicular collisions. Ouch. 
       
      However, this issue is the first to be solved. The introduction of Metal Hydrides have solved the storage issues. Metal Hydrides act as chemical sponges for Hydrogen gas (H2), binding the molecules inside their chemical structure. These metal hydrides are usually used as powders, where the hydrogen is then pushed through to store. To release the hydrogen, the metal hydride must be heated. The rate of diffusion is directly related to the temperature at which the metal hydride is heated, and thus the fuel rate into the fuel cell can be varied by varying the temperature of the metal hydride.
       
      Metal hydrides can absorb 2 to 10% H2 usually, but better compounds are being produced to increase the number.
       
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal_hydride_fuel_cell
       
      This is good, because it gives us a safe way to store hydrogen gas for fuel cells.
       
      This is bad, because the fuel delivery rate is much lower, and metal hydride fuel cells are, at their very best, 1/4th as powerful as their PEM brothers. At worst, they are 1/50th.
       
      But this is the best we can do in a vehicle. No one wants pressurized hydrogen canisters on the highways. Hell, most of the time you need special clearance and big signs to transport the stuff. And imagine the safety concerns for the EMTs and Paramedics during a car crash. Even if the tank isn't ruptured, no EMT or Paramedic would risk their lives until the wreckage was cleared.
       
      When I was going through my EMT training, they made it very clear that it doesn't matter if people are bleeding out in front of you. If you go in while it's still dangerous, you're only being a liability to your fellow EMTs, Firefighters, and police.
       
      But let's ignore the low power outputs of these MH Fuel Cells. What other issues do we have?
       
      Well, the fuel cell itself must be created using some very interesting techniques and materials. The biggest expense would be the platinum. Other catalysts are needed as well. As well as a very special proton-permeable membrane.
       
      To function, the membrane must conduct hydrogen ions (protons) but not electrons as this would in effect "short circuit" the fuel cell. The membrane must also not allow either gas to pass to the other side of the cell, a problem known as gas crossover. Finally, the membrane must be resistant to the reducing environment at the cathode as well as the harsh oxidative environment at the anode.
       
      This system includes electrodes, electrolyte, catalyst, and a porous gas diffusion layer. The rate of reaction will be dependent also on how quickly the water vapor product can diffuse through the porous material and out of the system. A system can have a lowered efficiency if the fuel cell is too dry or too wet. A balance must be met.
       
      And while yes, all of these situations can be worked around, it all comes at a heavy price. Currently we are using 30 grams of platinum in vehicle sized PEM fuel cells. This number will be going down once different catalysts are created, but the cost of these vehicles still pushes up to $50,000. The cost will go down, like any technology.
       
      I've yet to speak about where we obtain this hydrogen gas from. The easiest way to obtain hydrogen gas is via the electrolysis of water. H20 + An Electric Current → H2 + O2, essentially (it's not balanced, I know this.)
       
      But that electric current must be created as well. This usually comes from the electric grid, which is still, depending on the state, a majority coal-burning.
       
      Natural Gas reformation is another way to obtain Hydrogen gas, and is the most common way we currently use. It's the cheapest as well. Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a small amount of carbon dioxide, is created by reacting natural gas with high-temperature steam. The carbon monoxide is reacted with water to produce additional hydrogen.
       
      The other common ways are via fermentation of biofuel stocks (which is a long process without a great yield) or liquid reforming, which is really unfeasible in large quantities.
       
      The only way to obtain large amounts of hydrogen is via natural gas reformation, and that's still technically a fossil fuel source. So why were we going with hydrogen fuel cells again? To rid ourselves of dirty, dirty fossil fuel? Well shit.
       
      So to sum this up, the only way to safely use hydrogen as a fuel source in a moving vehicle would be by using metal hydrides, which require energy to access the stored hydrogen. This stored hydrogen flow rate is lower than standard PEMs, and results in a lower voltage, which in turn leads to a lower power output for the vehicle. More research and development must be done to find proper catalysts that can be made at a low cost, and production methods must be worked out to create the membranes more cheaply. All of this is held up by our hydrogen production systems.
       
      PEM fuel cell technology is awesome and I love it to death in many many situations. But vehicles isn't one of them.
       
      I may read about more advances in the near future that would change my opinion completely, but I would be surprised.
       
      Below I've added a problem out of my heat and mass transfer book (Incropera, 7th edition).
       




    • By StrelaCarbon
      Even though I'm relatively new to this forum, it did not take long at all for me to notice that here, I am in the company of many fellow petrolheads.
       
      Documenting the mildly interesting machines I encounter in my everyday life is something I like very much, and since I didn't see anyone here posting much about car spotting, I thought I'd make my own thread. So, if you have any pictures of interesting automotive finds, feel free to share them all right here. 
       
      To get the ball rolling, here's an imperfect (that racing seat looked really out of place, and there were some visible paint scratches) but still exquisite first-generation Mercury Cougar which I encountered this summer: 
       

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