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On ‎6‎/‎1‎/‎2020 at 4:04 AM, Sturgeon said:

Feedback. I expect everyone to read each section since feedback to other entries may prove useful in optimizing your own.

 

@Toxn
 

1. The projectile design is one of the most innovative and goal-oriented of all the submissions. A solid steel projectile could provide major benefits, chiefly in terms of cost and target penetration. Despite being much larger in caliber and using far more materials by mass, the 7x48mm ended up cheaper per shot than the .246 Sweet Pea. The primary disadvantage is likely to be barrel wear, but the submission cleverly includes a half-thousandth reduction in the diameter of the projectile versus the groove diameter, which should alleviate this somewhat. It is possible that further modifications may be needed to achieve acceptable wear and accuracy characteristics, but the simplicity of the current design is highly admirable.

2. The chamfer at the interior root of the case wall should be replaced with a radius of approximately 0.040".

3. The projectile ogive radius should be decreased to match the von Karman shape as closely as possible, to reduce drag. Alternatively, a true VKO ogive could be used.

4. The meplat diameter is excessive, at approximately 0.22 calibers. A meplat diameter of 0.15 calibers would reduce drag while still being highly practical to manufacture for a monolithic bullet.

5. A rounded meplat would be both easier to form and lower drag, given the projectile construction.

6. The given projectile length of 1.5" appears to be too long to give the stated projectile weight.

7. A reduction in caliber would allow for better performance, increased sectional density, and potentially reduced cost.

8. Hardening the tip of the projectile would allow an extremely inexpensive semi armor piercing option.

9. -80000 million points for metric.

 

TO: THE SECOND JOINT COMMITTEE FOR CARTRIDGE DEVELOPMENT, RAPID CITY, DAKOTA UNION

 

Dear sirs,

 

We are saddened to confirm the death of Fudd 'Bigbore' Taylor, whose body was discovered in an apartment in Sioux Falls last week when we attempted to reach him for comment regarding forthcoming improvements to his recent submission to the committee according to your previous instructions. 

 

Here we should note that the circumstances of his death are still being investigated, although the initial police report has the cause of death as "self inflicted from siting (sic) on a big bullet". We will, of course, contact you immediately in this regard should any further relevant information come to light.

 

Regarding your other instructions; we were fortunately able to gather enough of his latest work to recreate the fundamentals of his design, and have sent the same to the Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant ("RCUAP") for further analysis and development. Copies of the photographs and transcripts of the blueprints will be duly sent to you by post, as the original blueprints are unfortunately not in a format suitable for transport by virtue of being written on the apartment walls. Test samples of the projectiles and cartridges developed by Mr Taylor will be delivered to the committee by courier at the earliest possible convenience.

 

Further; given the urgency of the work being undertaken by Mr Taylor on behalf of the Committee, as well as the nature of the agreement entered into by virtue of his submissions to yourselves, we believe that there are no legal impediments to continuing his work while the process of winding up his estate continues. We have accordingly instructed the engineers at the RCUAP on your behalf to begin work on the improvement and finalisation of the design.

 

Here we are given to understand that slight adjustments to the dimensions of the projectile have already been done in accordance with your instructions, and that these adjustments have yielded "a small projected decrease in drag (0.260 G7 BC), along with a small drop in weight (121.7gn)". The plant engineers have further confirmed that they will communicate directly with you on this matter in future.

 

We should note, however, that they have categorically refused to reduce the calibre of the projectile as you requested, with the explanation for the aforesaid refusal being that the spirit of the deceased "invades their collective dreams" whenever they attempt to do so.

 

Given all of the above, we trust that the present matter is finalised for the moment, and accordingly attach our invoice for your further consideration.  

 

With kind regards,

 

Chayton Jones

 

Smith, Jones and Wambleeska

Sioux Falls

Dakota Union

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NOT CANON

 

From: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant
To: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer


Ota my boy! The news has come down the pike, Senator Brown's aide sent me a package this morning with the requirements for a new round for the Sioux Scouts and that fancy new semiauto they're designing. This will become our top priority project. In this envelope you'll find a copy of the solicitation, which is expected to be passed in the Senate in the next appropriations bill. Get to work!


From: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer
To: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant


Mr. Lewis, sir,

I've completed a study on a new round which will minimize weight and cost while meeting all of the requirements. Please find enclosed a dossier for the .20 Sioux, which thanks to its very efficient steel projectile and case will achieve the desired performance while costing less than 4¢ per round. I think this could be a huge enabler for the Sioux Scouts!



From: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant
To: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer


Ota! I found a typo in your dossier. It should be ".260" Sioux, not ".20".



From: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer
To: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant


Mr. Lewis, sir,

With the utmost respect, sir, it's properly called ".20 Sioux". The round is .204" caliber.



From: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant
To: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer


Ota! I know you worked hard on this, and I'm proud of you, but that just won't do. No one wants to draw hash on a buffalo with a 20-bore! Make it bigger. And the bullet is too light, 70 grains is nothing!



From: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer
To: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant


Mr. Lewis, sir,

I'm not sure I understand. The .20 Sioux will meet all of the Sioux Scouts' requirements with ease, while being extremely affordable.


 

From: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant
To: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer

 

Ota, my boy! Make it .260 caliber or greater, great work!
 

 

From: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer
To: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant


Mr. Lewis, sir,

I've completed work on the revised round for the Sioux Scouts. Please find enclosed a dossier on the .260 Sioux, which is expected to cost just over 4¢ per round. It was tough to pinch pennies while meeting the requirements with such a wide bullet, but this manages it!



From: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant
To: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer

 

Ota my boy! Fantastic work as always! I'm concerned though that the round you've designed produces less than 2,000 ft-lbs of energy. We should definitely bring that up a bit! And a 90-grain bullet? That's a little low, let's try at least 108 grains!
 


From: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer
To: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant


Mr. Lewis, sir,

I don't understand. Increasing the muzzle energy and bullet weight will require dramatically increasing the propellant charge and material consumption, which will increase cost unnecessarily! Plus, bullet's drag is low enough that it doesn't need to be heavier than 90 grains, or have more than 1,500 ft-lbs to meet the requirements you sent me. 

 

 

From: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant
To: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer

 

Ota! That's quite enough of that backchatter, let's go with 2,000 ft-lbs and call it a day, shall we!

 

From: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer
To: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant


Mr. Lewis, sir,

 

After considerable effort, I've finished the revisions you requested to the new round for the Sioux Scouts. Please find enclosed a dossier on the .260 Sioux Mark 5. Note that it produces approximately 2,000 ft-lbs with a 108gr bullet fired at an instrumental average of 2,875 ft/s. Now, this does mean it costs almost 6¢ per shot, but on the plus side it exceeds the energy requirement by about 300 yards, and the pine board requirement by over 400 yards.
 

 

From: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant
To: Otaktay Lewis, Engineer


Ota! It's perfect, excellent work! I'll send it off right away! Congratulations, I'm proud of you, son!

 

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Upon reviewing the submitted designs, the Great Council of the Flapetoŋwaŋ has determined that the design process of the settled agricultural peasant known as Toxn has become similar to that of the warriors of the endless sky. Various spies and collaborationists have been sacrificed to the glorious and eternal Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka for their treachery in provision of our superior pastoralist projectile designs to the sedentarist-agriculturalist wreckers and degenerates.

 

As a result of visions obtained during the sacrificial ritual, the council has decided to retain the extant bullet shape, as first described by the far-famed shaman of the distant Magyar steppes, known in the towns and cities by the appellation of von Kármán. The jacket will be modified to be produced from gilding metal drawn from the rear of the projectile, and the jacket thickness increased to 0.45 mm, or approximately the diameter of a single crystal of common salt. Additionally, a steel case will likely be implemented to satisfy the obsession of the paleface over his coins and gold.

 

He who grants the rightful honor to this cartridge will be honored at a great feast, and with the sacrifice of many horses.

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From: Mahapya Smith, Chief Engineer, SCHV department

To: Caliber Selection Committee, Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant

Enclosed is the final TDP for the new proposed round, 0.22 Rapier.
Following the Committee's advice, certain dimensions have been altered, to allow good growth margins, ease of manufacture, and low weight and cost, thus ensuring that this small but deadly bullet may best serve the needs of the scouts. Case head thicknesses have been reduced, as has case length, and the shoulder angle has increased to 25 degrees.
Following extensive field trials (see enclosed report), it has been decided to electrically bond the bullet core to the jacket. This advanced technological process ensures the best performance can be attained out of small bore bullets.
I and my faithful assistants, as the department, look forwards to your acceptance of this design; Initial batches have already been produced and tooling acquired for mass production, paid out of department funds.

 

From the personal diary of Mahpiya Smith

 When this RFP first came out, I was highly suspicious. While it's a common joke that nobody from the main offices would be caught dead in the "pest control" SCHV department, it appears to actually be true. For the past 4 years since I got the job of running the place (and it does get awfully lonely here sometimes), I have not seen anyone from the company other than the occasional runner. Were it not for the regular paychecks and occasional company-wide memos, one might even think I was shunted into a dead end job with no authority (or indeed employees), where the management can keep me out of both sight and mind. This RFP seemed tailor-made to be the final nail in my career's coffin. I must either submit a design, lose, and thereby lose my job, or fail to submit, be seen as useless, and again lose my job. In either case, the prospects are dim. A lone solution presented itself - deliver a nominally competitive design, but at minimal cost, while reporting moderate expenses. This approach means my pension fund will be, if not undamaged by my firing, at least strongly and creatively augmented. My totally-real-they-just-aren't-in-today assistants hired from the development budget, Gladys and Fred, have also aided the cause of moving project funds to where they actually belong.
Today I sent in the final draft. It'll take them a week to select a winner, another to write me a sufficiently patronizing letter of termination, and at least one more week to send in the wreckers to clear out the department shack and reclaim the tooling. By the time they get here, I should be long gone.

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From: Dr. "Curly" Aberdeen, Researcher, Rapid City Ballistics Research Laboratory

To: Caliber Selection Committee, Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant

The .224 ZM cartridge has been revised as per the Committee's suggestions following the first evaluation and the revised technical data package is enclosed with this message.

Projectile construction has been simplified with the deletion of the cup sealing off the lead core, and the rather embarrassing meplat of the original submission has been replaced with a rounded meplat of 0.12 calibers in diameter. The core material has also been changed to a lead alloy with 8% antimony content to increase its hardness and further improve its penetration characteristics. The case rim and extractor groove have been increased in thickness to approximately 0.059" and 0.039" respectively, and the case neck and shoulder have been decreased in thickness to 0.0122". The cartridge overall length has also been increase, allowing for the recommended seating depth tolerance of 0.020".

That is all for now. I will be looking forward to the Committee's evaluation of the cartridge.

 

Personal Notes:

That goddamn Von Karman ogive. I should never have bothered to make another attempt at it, let alone entertain the idea, even if it would have allowed me to increase the caliber to something a bit more..."palatable" for the Committee. I am not wasting another week on this stupid ogive, unless my colleagues are willing to resuscitate my corpse after I inevitably shoot myself out of sheer frustration.

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TO: Sen. Chaska Brown,

New Capitol Building, cnr Railroad ave and Market str

Aberdeen

Dakota Union

 

Chas,

 

I've had my  boys working on the damn mess that your pet attorney in Sioux Falls sent our way, and they've managed to reconstruct the cartridge.

 

Remember that you owe me one for this, and that RCUAP is getting the manufacturing contract no matter who wins. And if this one wins we're getting all the rights, damn what the will says. We did the family a favour just by naming it.

 

Looking forward to seeing your family in the fall, and my regards to Macha.

 

- Art

 

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TO: THE SECOND JOINT COMMITTEE FOR CARTRIDGE DEVELOPMENT, RAPID CITY, DAKOTA UNION

 

Dear Sirs,

 

We have now completed work on the improvements to the cartridge design provided by your attorney, and attach the results hereto.

 

We trust that the improvements we've made to the deceased Mr Taylor's work will earn your consideration for future production contracts regardless of the outcome of your present deliberations, and look forward to your further correspondence in this regard.

 

With kind regards,

 

Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production, Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant

(Dictated but not read)

 

Encl.

Dossier on cartridge design and construction (5 pgs)

Summary of test results (7 pgs)

Photographic prints of cartridge

Blueprints of cartridge, bullet

 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

DOSSIER: CARTRIDGE, 0.283 CALIBRE, "FUDD"

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

The new cartridge, developed by the RCUAP, has been provided the provisional name of "Fudd" after the deceased Fudd Taylor, who performed valuable preliminary work on the design. 

 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION:

 

Our design combines a low-drag, 122gn monolithic bullet formed from low-hardness drawing steel with a low-cost, lacquered steel case to produce an effective, expedient cartridge for use by our Sioux Scout corps in field operations. The use of lathe-turned drawing steel in the construction of the bullet is expected to reduce barrel wear while retaining a high degree of accuracy.

 

Differential annealing after turning allows for a harder tip, improving penetration of the basic bullet design. A semi-armor piercing bullet is also provided, which makes use of RCUAPs expertise in induction heating technology to case harden the tip. The hardened tip is then quenched while allowing the driving surface to anneal. This results in superior penetration performance against armoured targets and vehicles.

 

Further specialty loads (armour piercing, incendiary, tracer) have also been developed for the cartridge by making use of a deep-drawing steel jacket and a lead plug to adjust the weight of the bullet. This eases the issue of ballistic matching for non-standard loads.

 

The cost of the current design is outstanding, with good penetration and recoil characteristics...

 

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SECRETARIAL DRAFT

DO NOT SUBMIT

 

From: Chayton Jones, Lead Engineer

To: Arthur Q. Lewis, Director of Production at Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant

 

Sequestered away in the heart of the Black Hill with a copious supply of peyote, Through diligent effort over the last few weeks, my team has completed work on our entry for the Scout’s new cartridge. We believe Senator Brown and his committee will find it entirely acceptable. We call the new cartridge the .237 Antidote because it will cure all, or nearly all, of my team’s the Scouts’ troubles. We further believe that you will find the 103.2 grain loading in line with your requirements for a .260 projectile or greater. While our projectile is merely .237 in nominal diameter, and .243 in diameter at the rotating band, the 103.2 projectile and its .320 G7 ballistic coefficient approximates the performance of a low-drag, 140 grain .264 projectile. Even firing this impressive projectile, the magazines for the new semi-auto will surely fit 24 cartridges owing to the .40” rim diameter. The material costs for the 103.2 grain projectile and the loaded brass-cased cartridge are 0.95 and 5.50 cents respectively.

 

In addition to the 103.2 grain loading, we have taken it upon ourselves acceded to the demands of the wretched accountants and developed a 85.8 grain general purpose (GP) projectile, a 85.8 grain armor piercing (AP) projectile, and a 86.5 grain expanding copper-jacketed, or “Copperhead,” projectile (CH). The 85.8 and 86.5 grain projectiles have G7 BCs of .266 and .268 and muzzle velocities of 2917 and 2905 ft/sec, respectively. For field use, my team considers these three cartridges ballistically equivalent. 

 

All natures of the new .237 projectiles are characterized by a projectile overall length of six calibers, a 3.33 caliber nose, a .243 rotating band, and a one caliber boat tail set at seven degrees. My team finds that the nominal .237 projectile diameter provides good external ballistic performance while retaining the internal ballistic performance of larger .243 projectiles. The .237 projectiles also provide slightly increased usable case capacity and lower projectile weight compared to a six-caliber .243 projectile at 2.8” COAL (without resorting to excessive internal cavities or exotic materials). Since the rotating band engages the rifling, the bearing surface merely rides along the lands. Therefore, the projectile can be kept stable within the bore, wear on the lands can be kept to a minimum, and the bearing surface/coating can possess high hardness.

 

Apart from employing a rotating band, my team’s second great innovation is forsaking the cult of von Kármán foregoing the use of a von Kármán ogive in favor of a three-quarter power series ogive. While the von Kármán ogive is indeed very efficient in the transonic and low supersonic range of free-stream velocities, the most critical phases of flight with respect to this projectile, and modern small arms projectiles in general, occur above Mach 1.8-2.0. Above Mach 1.5 the L-D Haack/von Kármán ogive begins to lose out relative to ogives in the power series (for flight bodies having an L/D of 3). Long hours spent conjuring the spirits of the immortal aerodynamicists delving into dust covered NACA reports (e.g., Perkins et al., Report No. 1386)confirm that the three-quarter power curve, aka the one form to rule them all hypersonic optimum form, is an excellent form in at least the Mach 1.8-3.0 range. The three-quarter power curve approximates a von Kármán ogive near the meplat interface and transitions into an extremely shallow, nearly conical parabolic section at the bearing surface interface. Past research demonstrates that this form is nearly as efficient as a von Kármán ogive in the transonic flight regime and becomes increasingly more efficient as free stream velocity increases through the mid to high supersonic and low hypersonic regimes. Employing the three-quarter power curve will provide the .237 Antidote with the highest possible efficiency within 600 yards, where the .237 Antidote GP, AP, and CH projectiles are above Mach 1.7.

 

In addition to the aforementioned innovations, the GP, AP, and CH projectiles utilize a new architecture comprising a low-carbon steel cup and a copper nose that is pressed into said cup. The half-caliber copper rotating band is also pressed onto the steel cup. Accordingly, it should prove relatively easily to switch production amongst these three projectile natures utilizing the same production lines. With the appropriate dies, it is likely that the copper noses can be economically produced via impact extrusion and drawing operations utilizing existing equipment. Producing the steel cups via impact extrusion, drawing, metal-injection molding, and/or milling is under investigation. Steels in the 1010, 1018, or 1020 ranges are candidate materials for the cups depending on the method of manufacturing ultimately chosen. 

 

The GP projectiles possess a 4340 steel penetrator, and the armor piercing projectiles possess a D7 tool steel penetrator. In soft tissue the penetrators will fracture the nose and provide divergent wound tracks that should rapidly incapacitate small-statured foes targets. The CH projectile includes a small D7 tool steel tip as well, to assist with penetration. The primary wounding mechanism of the CH projectile, however, is the monolithic copper nose insert that expands in tissue to generate large permanent wound tracks. The CH projectile will likely be the Scout’s best choice for taking large game animals, such as elk and bison. 

 

The GP, AP, and CH cartridges all utilize an economical lacquered steel cartridge case having an internal capacity of 35.75 grains H2O. This cartridge case, and the more expensive brass cartridge case used in conjunction with the 103.2 grain projectile, are loaded with 26.0 grains of propellant. An extremely modest relative capacity of 2.62 inches will provide exceptional barrel life and illustrates the tremendous potential of these projectiles when fired from higher capacity cases.  

 

At a mere 4.69 cents material cost per shot, the GP projectile is exceedingly economical and will allow younger Scouts to rapidly train up and qualify for the more expensive natures. The GP projectile also provides an outstanding blend of performance and economy in times of war or general unrest. At 4.99 cents material cost per shot, the CH projectile, while significantly more expensive than the GP cartridge, is nevertheless economical enough to provide each Scout with a sufficient number to meet their needs with respect to taking large game in the course of their duties. Scouts sent on special assignments may opt for the AP cartridge. While still more expensive at 5.12 cents material cost per shot, the AP cartridge will enable the Scout to carry one nature that is suitable for nearly any target that the Scout is likely to engage with a rifle within 600 yards. Most expensive of all is the 103.2 grain lead cored cartridge at 5.50 cents material cost per shot. Nevertheless, the 103.2 grain cartridge significantly outperforms the GP, AP, and CH cartridges at all ranges with respect to retained energy and outperforms them beyond 600 yards in terms of retained velocity. Like the other usurpers entrants in this competition, each .237 Antidote nature handily meets the specified penetration and recoil requirements.

 

Unfortunately development of the impressive 103.2 grain, lead-cored cartridge is experiencing difficulties. The high one-in-5.5” twist rates needed to stabilize the extremely low drag, six caliber projectiles tend to cause instability and in-bore jacket separation when firing these heavy, lead cored projectiles with a sabotaged jacket. Accordingly, we recommend that we proceed with final development and deployment of the GP, AP, and CH cartridges with all possible speed. That is until the 103.2 grain projectiles are forgotten mature, of course. 

 

Additionally, my team requests all available funds to develop cartridges for the .237 projectiles having a .42” case head or greater, should the Scouts become captured by the General General Purpose Cartridge (G2PC) mafia and request a larger cartridge.  

 

Attached, please find additional documentation as to the specifications and performance of the .237 Antidote family of cartridges.

 

Regards,

 

Mr. Chayton Jones

Lead Engineer, Mystical Research Advanced Technologies Division

 

Post Script: 

 

My team and I humbly request that the monies now available in light of recapturing Mr. Smith’s funding and pension be applied to the accounts of the Production Engineering Division, as we are sure that their beratements and protestations will require accommodation assistance will prove invaluable in fielding the new .237 Antidote cartridges. 

 

Attachments:

 

.237 Antidote Data Sheet

 

.237 Antidote Dossier

 

SECRETARIAL DRAFT

DO NOT SUBMIT

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Friends, Dakotans, countrymen! Lend me your rifles!

 

The final iteration of the .257 FLAP cartridge design is here, featuring additional improvements which improve projectile performance and mitigate the velocity loss caused by the move to a lower-pressure steel case: doubtless at the behest of those uncouth men of the cities who are as profligate with lead as they are parsimonious with gold. But nonetheless, rejoice! Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka has granted success to our engineers and ballisticians, and the requirements are met even at what truly seem to be the lowest possible of velocities.

 

The new round retains the same general case dimensions, except with a shorter neck. The 128-grain projectile leaves the barrel at a respectable 2790 feet per second and clings to its velocity like no other round in such a small caliber.

 

The von Kármán ogive shape has been retained, as it is likely that firearm advancements (as well as, we hope, the eventual acquiescence of the craven bean-counters to the demands for brass-cased ammunition) will accelerate the projectile to even higher velocities than currently attained - even though, nonetheless, the round performs admirably even at a pokier pace.

 

The primary improvements are as follows:

  1. The jacket is now 0.175" thick and produced from an approximately five-percent zinc bronze, drawn from the rear of the projectile. This will ensure significant penetration capability in dense and deep targets, such as bison.
  2. The case has been redesigned for production from steel. Although approximately one hundred feet per second, if not more, may be gained via the use of a higher-pressure and higher-capacity brass case, the weight savings are significant. Cost savings as well, but it bodes poorly to dwell on ammunition cost - one bullet will harvest a buffalo sufficient for the purchase of thousands, and the Scouts of the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ do not miss.
  3. The neck of the case has been shortened to 0.250" to avoid a waste of volume, particularly in consideration of the projectile's short shank. The ogive comes up exactly to the case mouth.
  4. The meplat has been made significantly smaller, to a diameter of 0.025". Accuracy significantly benefits from the the open-tip design. Given the expected uses of this projectile, an expanding design is contraindicated, but one has been designed with a larger meplat diameter of 0.05" and a larger hollow behind such. Although ballistically inferior, this is likely to have somewhat better terminal effects on medium game, such as mule deer or humans.

 

The superior characteristics of this round should be evident to all present who have taken buffalo or fought against men out on the endless plains.

 

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Fig. 1. Ballistic performance at full velocity.

 

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Fig. 2. Ballistic performance at substandard velocity, to the tune of 200 feet per second. (!)

 

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Fig. 3. Internal ballistics data calculated by the upgraded megacomputer.

 

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Fig. 4. The rather gentle recoil characteristics of the round.

 

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Fig. 5. Penetration into pine at 600 yards with reduced velocity, which comes out to above 18". This increases to ~19.8" when the projectile is fired at full velocity.

 

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Fig. 6. Cost per round, as cursorily estimated by the "accounting" "department".

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DAKOTA UNION CARTRIDGES AND ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT

BULLETIN
BULLETIN
BULLETIN

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:

THE DAKOTA UNION CARTRIDGES AND ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT HAS TESTED CANDIDATE ROUNDS DEVELOPED BY THE FINEST SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS THE UNION HAS TO OFFER. THESE ROUNDS WERE PUT THROUGH THEIR PACES ON THE MASSIVE ORDNANCE 5,000 YARD BALLISTIC TESTING FACILITY GROUNDS IN THUNDER BASIN, COMMONLY KNOWN AS THE THUNDER BASIN PROVING GROUNDS. THE COMMISSIONER OF TESTING IS PLEASED TO REPORT THAT ALL CANDIDATES PERFORMED EXTREMELY WELL, AND HAVE EACH IN TURN THOROUGHLY JUSTIFIED THE UNION'S SELECTION OF A BRAND NEW CARTRIDGE & CHAMBERING FOR THE SIOUX SCOUTS UPCOMING STANDARD SEMIAUTOMATIC RIFLE (SSR). HOWEVER, WHEN ALL IS SAID AND DONE, ONE MUST BE CHOSEN, AND THAT CHOICE WAS CLEAR: THE .236 CAL-1.85 ROUND DEVELOPED BY ALDO GRIFFIN AND HIS TEAM SHOWED SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE IN EVERY RESPECT, WHILE MODERATING BOTH WEIGHT TO THE SCOUT AND COST TO THE LIENHOLDER. CONGRATULATIONS TO GRIFFIN AND HIS TEAM FOR A JOB WELL DONE.

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CONFIDENTIAL

AN EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE RIFLE CALIBERS FOR THE SIOUX SCOUTS STANDARD SEMIAUTOMATIC RIFLE (SSR)

THUNDER BASIN PROVING GROUNDS

September 25th, 2222

 


 

-cartridges for five candidate calibers and several chambered barrels each were received for testing during the week of July 7th, 2222. These were from teams lead by Curler, Neelam, Flapper, and Tockson, and two projectiles with a shared case from a team led by Griffin. The measured characteristics of their respective rounds were as follows:

 

.224 cal (Curler):
 

Case Length: 1.875
Base Diameter: 0.408
Case Taper: 0.5 deg
Shoulder angle: 25 deg
Neck length: 0.233
Rim thickness: 0.049
Rim height: 0.123
Groove angle: 36
Bullet diameter: 0.224
Bullet length: 1.1298
Cartridge overall length: 2.576
Proposed case capacity: 38.56 grs H2O
Measured case capacity: 38.67 grs H2O

Proposed bullet weight: 76.07
Measured bullet weight: 76.07

Proposed i7FF: 0.853
Measured i7FF: 0.796

Proposed G7 BC: 0.254
Measured G7 BC: 0.278


.224 cal (Neelam):

 

Case Length: 2.00
Base Diameter: 0.400
Case Taper: 0.80 deg
Shoulder angle: 25 deg
Neck length: 0.220
Rim thickness: 0.060
Rim height: 0.139
Groove angle: 45
Bullet diameter: 0.224
Bullet length: 1.260
Cartridge overall length: 2.71
Proposed case capacity: N/A
Measured case capacity: 37.61

Proposed bullet weight: 83.3
Measured bullet weight: 84.0

Proposed i7FF: 0.801
Measured i7FF: 0.682

Proposed G7 BC: 0.296
Measured G7 BC: 0.351


 

.243 cal (Griffin):
 

Case Length: 1.85
Base Diameter: 0.4
Case Taper: 0.5 deg
Shoulder angle: 25 deg
Neck length: 0.237
Rim thickness: 0.060
Rim height: 0.1274
Groove angle: 45 deg
Bullet diameter: 0.243
Bullet length: 1.422
Cartridge overall length: 2.8
Proposed case capacity: 35.75 grs H2O
Measured case capacity: 35.86 grs H2O

Proposed bullet weight: 85.75
Measured bullet weight: 84.65
Proposed bullet weight: 103.2
Measured bullet weight: 106.0

Proposed i7FF: 0.78
Measured i7FF: 0.618

Proposed G7 BC: 0.266
Measured G7 BC: 0.331


.257 cal (Flapper):

 

Case Length: 1.975
Base Diameter: 0.473
Case Taper: 0.50 deg
Shoulder angle: 25 deg
Neck length: 0.244
Rim thickness: 0.0539
Rim height: 0.152
Groove angle: 36.44 deg
Bullet diameter: 0.257
Bullet length: 1.374
Cartridge overall length: 2.8
Proposed case capacity: 52.22 grs H2O
Measured case capacity: 52.20 grs H2O

Proposed bullet weight: 128
Measured bullet weight: 129

Proposed i7FF: 0.849
Measured i7FF: 0.773

Proposed G7 BC: 0.326
Measured G7 BC: 0.361


 

.283 cal (Tockson):
 

Case Length: 1.8898
Base Diameter: 0.473
Case Taper: 0.34 deg
Shoulder angle: 25 deg
Neck length: 0.241
Rim thickness: 0.054
Rim height: 0.1615
Groove angle: 33 deg
Bullet diameter: 0.283
Bullet length: 1.5
Cartridge overall length: 2.8
Proposed case capacity: 49.34 grs H2O
Measured case capacity: 50.81 grs H2O

Proposed bullet weight: 122
Measured bullet weight: 124

Proposed i7FF: 0.824
Measured i7FF: 0.717

Proposed G7 BC: 0.264
Measured G7 BC: 0.308

 

 


 

 

CONCLUSIONS:

All candidate rounds met the requirements while eking out substantial margins in cost, weight, and recoil versus legacy calibers of comparable capability (e.g., .308 Winchester). No candidates tested showed any concerning deficiencies in critical metrics like penetration, or retained energy. Every single candidate round tested at a lower i7 FF than proposed. No candidate round tested at a higher i7 FF than 0.8. All candidate rounds produced test velocities close to their proposed velocity. Some candidate rounds had marked (>1gr) deviations from their proposed projectile weight, but this was deemed a byproduct of manufacturing and not considered critical. No candidate round had less than 800 yards range with at least 700 ft-lbs striking energy, which is considered exceptional performance, even considering the small caliber of some of the rounds. Pine penetration for all rounds substantially exceeded the minimum specification, indicating suitability for hunting large game at medium to long distances. Trajectory and wind drift for all candidate rounds was excellent. In each metric, the rounds were ranked, shown by the tables below.

Velocity:
1. Neelam

2. Griffin (106)

3. Flapper

4. Griffin (85)

5. Curler

6. Tockson

Energy:

1. Flapper

2. Griffin (106)

3. Tockson

4. Neelam

5. Griffin (85)

6. Curler

Trajectory:
1. Curler

2. Neelam

3. Griffin (85)

4. Flapper

5. Griffin (106)

6. Tockson

Wind Drift:

1. Griffin (106)

2. Neelam

3. Flapper

4. Griffin (85)

5. Curler

6. Tockson


Pine Penetration:

1. Flapper

2. Griffin (106)

3. Neelam

4. Curler

5. Griffin (85)

6. Tockson


Materials Cost:

1. Neelam

2. Griffin (85)

3. Griffin (106)

4. Curler

5. Tockson

6. Flapper


Weight:

1. Curler

2. Neelam

3. Griffin (85)

4. Griffin (106)

5. Flapper

6. Tockson


Recoil:

1. Curler

2. Griffin (85)

3. Neelam

4. Griffin (106)

5. Tockson

6. Flapper

All competitors were very close in all metrics except cost, weight, and recoil. From these, it is immediately evident that the 106gr projectile proposed by Griffin's team was the most cost-effective round of all tested, scoring first or second in all performance metrics besides trajectory, where all rounds were extremely close anyway. In addition, this proposal's projectile possessed several key attributes which were decisive in its selection: A very high sectional density (second-highest among projectiles tested), unprecedentedly low drag, and an economical expanding projectile which remains front-stable during penetration. Most other proposals used steel full metal jackets, or were made entirely of pressed steel, which are designs that, while they provide excellent penetration characteristics, do not remain stable throughout their path and often deviate from the shot line, and which also do not provide any expansion to widen the wound cavity. These characteristics are considered acceptable, but those of an expanding, front-stable bullet are certainly preferred. Griffin's other proposal was an 85gr bullet of novel construction that, while very interesting, was considered far riskier, while possessing less desirable ballistic characteristics anyway. It could, however, form the basis for a promising armor piercing projectile, and so funding for further study of this design is recommended.

 

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CONFIDENTIAL

 

From: Aldo Griffin, Chief Engineer, Ammunition Development Task Force

 

To: The Second Joint Committee For Cartridge Development, Dakota Union Cartridges and Ordnance Department

 

March 2, 2223

 

Re: Progress on .237 Antidote Mk.2

 

In response to the Committee’s request, I am pleased to report that the Task Force is finalizing details for the Capability Production Document (CPD). I know everyone is anxious for the Mk.2 CPD so that low-rate initial production and operational testing can commence. I can assure the Committee that the Task Force is proceeding with all due urgency with respect to Operation Shangri-La. It has been a long road, but I think even ol’ Big Bore would be content with what we’ve accomplished, if not entirely satisfied with the .237/.243 caliber.

 

I do not believe the Scouts should have too much to complain about with this one. And they may not have been wrong about Mk.1. Not only have we equaled the long-range performance of their 175 grain .308 load, as the Scouts requested, we have surpassed it. While not as inexpensive as Mk.1, Mk.2 still beats the .308 on cost, bulk, and recoil. The move to the .435 case head has paid real dividends. 

 

Not only have we increased performance, at the behest of Mr. Lewis I believe we have successfully de-risked production of the General Purpose (GP) and Armor Piercing (AP) natures. 

 

As will be reflected in the CPD, GP Mk.2 and AP Mk.2 have experienced a slight increase in weight. Prototype samples weigh slightly more than 87 grains. The GP Mk.2 projectile comprises a partially exposed 24 grain, nickel-plated, 4340 alloy penetrator sitting atop a 36 grain, 1018 alloy core. The AP Mk.2 projectile comprises a partially exposed 59 gn, nickel-plated, D7 tool steel penetrator. The Task Force has elected to dispense with the cup-and-nose architecture in favor of a more conventional reverse-drawn CuZn5 gilding metal jacket. Like the Mk.1 and Mk.2 lead-cored projectiles, the GP Mk.2 and AP Mk.2 jackets include an integral rotating band to reduce barrel wear resulting from the full-length steel components.    

 

The Long Range (LR) Mk.2 projectile has experienced a slight reduction in weight to bring the boat tail length back to that of the GP Mk.2 and AP Mk.2 projectiles at one caliber. Prototype samples weigh approximately 101.5 grains. The LR Mk.2 projectile comprises a 4 grain, nickel-plated, 4340 alloy tip and a 68 grain Pb97Sb3 core. The LR Mk.2 jacket is pure copper to maximize sectional density and includes an integral rotating band. 

 

Performance of all three natures is outstanding. All three retain the .618 i7 form factor and outer mold line that was so successful during Phase 2 trials. The G7 GP Mk.2 and AP Mk.2 BCs are .342, and the G7 LR Mk.2 BC is .397. The slight decrease in BC for LR Mk.2, at least as predicted using the Task Force’s sub-standard equipment, is more than made up for by the significant increase in velocity provided by the .435 case head.

 

The newly developed .435 - 1.85 inch, lacquer-coated, steel cartridge case is loaded with 36.1 grains of propellant irrespective of projectile nature. The .435 case provides GP Mk.2 and AP Mk.2 with a muzzle velocity of 3185 ft/s and a muzzle energy of 1966 ft-lbs when fired from a 22 inch barrel. The .435 case provides LR Mk.2 with a muzzle velocity of 2980 ft/s and a muzzle energy of 2001 ft-lbs when fired from a 22 inch barrel. The increase in velocity provided by the approximately 10 grain increase in propellant charge weight substantially increases down-range performance.

 

A drop of 96” occurs at 800 yards and 775 yards for GP/AP Mk.2 and LR Mk.2, respectively. A drift of 36” occurs at 900 yards and 950 yards for GP/AP Mk.2 and LR Mk.2, respectively. Down-range energy reaches 700 ft-lbs at 1025 yards and 1175 yards for GP/AP Mk.2 and LR Mk.2, respectively. Additionally, GP Mk.2 and AP Mk.2 meet the 12” pine penetration requirement out to approximately 1400 yards at predicted muzzle velocity and approximately 1250 yds at 200 ft/s under predicted muzzle velocity. Most impressive of all, LR Mk.2 achieves 12” penetration at over 1500 yards, predicted muzzle velocity and 1500 yards, -200 ft/s. Recoil remains mild at 5.8 ft-lbs and 6.6 ft-lbs for GP/AP Mk.2 and LR Mk.2, respectively. 

 

Senator Brown’s predicted FY23 budget should be able to accommodate the modest increases in material cost, which is mostly attributed to the increase in propellant. Respective cartridge material costs for GP Mk.2, AP Mk.2, and LR Mk.2 are approximately 5.52 cents, 6.65 cents, and 6.317 cents. Respective cartridge weights for GP Mk.2, AP Mk.2, and LR Mk.2 are 15 grams, 15 grams, and 16.17 grams. 

 

Despite the modest increases in cost, bulk, and weight, the Task Force’s testing demonstrates that all three natures of .237 Antidote Mk.2 provide an as of yet unrivaled level of efficiency and performance. The Task Force is confident that .237 Antidote Mk.2 is the right choice given the terrain, temperatures, winds, and long sight lines that the Scouts and our new force of Rangers are likely to encounter in Operation Shangri-La. Moreover, Mk.2 will meet the Ranger’s call for a 30-round magazine for the new semi-auto having a stack height of less than 7” (Mk.2 30-round stack height is 6.74”).  

 

The Committee can expect the finalized CPD within the month. The Task Force looks forward to the Committee's decision, and hopes to bring this successful Engineering and Manufacturing Development Phase to an end while spooling up the Production and Deployment Phase along with Mr. Lewis and Rapid City Union Ammunition Plant.

 

Regards, 

 

Aldo

 

.237 Antidote Mk.2 Engineering and Manufacturing Development Phase Data

 

IMAGES

 

Spoiler

50007577992_95700719bc_b.jpg

GP Mk.2

 

50006790533_438eda5c68_b.jpg

AP Mk.2

 

50007573927_f82134d9d2_b.jpg

LR Mk.2

 

50007318886_c7222688a9_b.jpg

AP/GP Mk.2

 

50006786548_cd324895e8_b.jpg

LR Mk.2

 

50007573912_4cda717f6d_b.jpg

Loaded .435" Cartridge Case


PERFORMANCE

Spoiler

50013924586_d13e324242_h.jpg

 

50013395568_1403a2942e_h.jpg

 

50013924606_d8de7f43ca_h.jpg

 

50013924661_3198f18853_h.jpg

 

 

 

 

CONFIDENTIAL

Edited by Gripen287
Screwed up axes
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      Offsetting the lack of machine pistols somewhat, the Texas government has aggressively pursued the sturmgewehr concept as part of their arms program. The latest of many Texan weapons in this class is the G-42, a gas operated select-fire weapon with a capacity of 28 rounds. Caliber is 6.86x40mm, and muzzle velocity is over 900 m/s. This rifle has been made relatively inexpensive due to a large production rate and widespread adoption by the settler population, who use it primarily for homestead defense and hunting. Like its manually-operated predecessor, it is compatible with optics, and usually is found equipped with the same 1-8 optical sight. Numerous other weapons, including pre-war designs both reclaimed and newly manufactured, are also used by various Texas citizens and militias.

      MACHINE GUNS
       
      Although there is not much need for belt fed machine guns in cattle herding (the primary trade of the citizens of the Texas countryside) the Texas government has procured significant numbers for border control and to combat bandits. Most of these are contained in armories at the various outposts and post offices that run along the country's substantial highway system, but some are held privately. Despite most belt feds worldwide being based on designs from over 200 years ago, many of those in the Lone Free State are original designs dating to within the last 50 years. This is exemplified by the primary Texan belt fed machine gun, the G-17A4, which fires an advanced high pressure steel cased 7.62mm round with either an open or a closed bolt operation. Most remarkable is its weight, which is just over 8 kilograms. Stocked infantry variants, as well as more numerous fixed/vehicle stockless variants both exist. Texan heavy machine guns still fire the 322-year-old 12.7x99mm round, albeit in a greatly augmented form. Like the smaller 7.62mm machine gun round, it uses a steel case and relatively high chamber pressure of 4800 BAR, which results in a 3,150 ft/s muzzle velocity with its 750 grain armor piercing explosive projectile. The principal machine gun in this caliber is the G-19A2 which is gas operated and utilizes a soft recoil system and has a rate of fire of approximately 500 rounds per minute. These machine guns are usually seen mounted to government G-12 4x4 armored cars.
       
      AUTOCANNONS
       
      Only in the past 15 years as the Lone Free State invested heavily in autocannons. For most of its post-war history, there were simply not enough targets that required automatic cannons, with very few armored ground vehicles and aircraft being operated by non-state actors in the Texas region until recently, to necessitate development of new weapons. However, as the Lone Free State has expanded, it has begun to encounter better organized and armed natives, necessitating the development of a standardized suite of new large-caliber autocannons. Chief among these is the electric G-37 firing a 30.5x114mmB round with a muzzle velocity of about 820 m/s and a rate of fire of about 550 rounds per minute. Interestingly, this cannon is capable of being mounted on any of the same pintle mounts as the G-19A2, giving light Texan units potentially very good firepower.
       
      RECOILLESS ARTILLERY
       
      Despite not seeing the need for autocannons for many years, the Lone Free State has liberally used the recoilless artillery concept, with most local militias possessing some stockpile of recoilless weapons. Numerous variants of recoilless rifle exist in three primary calibers, 57.2x305mmR, 76.2x406mmR, and 105.4x610mmR. These recoilless cannons are commonly mounted to the light helicopters used by various Texan government entities.
       

       
      A Texan G-18A7 helicopter waits for routine maintenance outside the hangar. These helicopters are the primary aerial support asset across the Lone Free State of Texas. (Reader's note: This picture shows two quite shagged out Kiowas, but the G-18 is a unique indigenous design to the LFSoT. The Kiowa is only used here to represent the kind of helicopter that the G-18 would be.)
       
       

       
      Supplementary Out of Canon Information:
       
       
      I.     Technology available:
      a.      Armor:
      The following armor materials are in full production and available for use. Use of a non-standard armor material requires permission from a judge.
      Structural materials:
                                                                    i.     RHA/CHA
      Basic steel armor, 360 BHN. The reference for all weapon penetration figures, good impact properties, fully weldable. Available in thicknesses up to 4 inches (RHA).
      Density- 0.28 lb/in^3.
                                                                   ii.     Aluminum 5083
      More expensive to work with than RHA per weight, middling impact properties, low thermal limits. Excellent stiffness.
       Fully weldable. Available in thicknesses up to 4 inches.
      Mass efficiency vs RHA of 1 vs CE, 0.9 vs KE.
      Thickness efficiency vs RHA of 0.33 vs CE, 0.3 vs KE.
      Density- 0.1 lb/in^3 (approx. 1/3 of steel).
      For structural integrity, the following guidelines are recommended:
      For heavy vehicles (30-40 tons), not less than 1 in RHA/1.75 in Aluminum base structure
      For medium-light vehicles (<25 tons), not less than 0.5 in RHA/1 in Aluminum base structure
      Intermediate values for intermediate vehicles may be chosen as seen fit.
      Non-structural passive materials:
                                                                  iii.     HHA
      Steel, approximately 500 BHN through-hardened. Approximately 1.5x as effective as RHA against KE and HEAT on a per-weight basis. Not weldable, middling shock properties. Available in thicknesses up to 1 inch.
      Density- 0.28 lb/in^3
                                                                  iv.     Fuel
      Mass efficiency vs RHA of 1.3 vs CE, 1 vs KE.
      Thickness efficiency vs RHA of 0.14 vs CE, 0.1 vs KE.
      Density-0.03 lb/in^3.
                                                                v.     Assorted stowage/systems
      Mass efficiency vs RHA- 1 vs CE, 0.8 vs KE.
                                                               vi.     Spaced armor
      Requires a face of at least 1 inch LOS vs CE, and at least 0.75 caliber LOS vs fullbore AP KE.
      Reduces penetration by a factor of 1.1 vs CE or 1.05 vs KE for every 4 inchair gap.
      Spaced armor rules only apply after any standoff surplus to the requirements of a reactive cassette.
      Reactive armor materials:
                                                                  vii.     ERA
      A sandwich of 0.125in/0.125in/0.125in steel-explodium-steel.
      Requires mounting brackets of approximately 10-30% cassette weight.
      Must be spaced at least 2 sandwich thicknesses away from any other armor elements to allow full functionality. 81% coverage (edge effects).
                                                                  viii.     NERA
      A sandwich of 0.25in steel/0.25in rubber/0.25in steel.
      Requires mounting brackets of approximately 10-30% cassette weight.
      Must be spaced at least 1 sandwich thickness away from any other armor elements to allow full functionality. 95% coverage.
      The details of how to calculate armor effectiveness will be detailed in Appendix 1.
      b.      Firepower
                                                                    i.     Bofors 57mm - 85,000 PSI PMax/70,000 PSI Peak Operating Pressure, high quality steel cases, recoil mechanisms and so on are at an equivalent level to that of the USA in the year 1960.
                                                                   ii.     No APFSDS currently in use, experimental weapons only - Spindle sabots or bourelleted sabots, see for example the Soviet BM-20 100mm APFSDS.
                                                                  iii.     Tungsten is available for tooling but not formable into long rod penetrators.
                                                                  iv.     Texan shaped charge technology - 4 CD penetration for high-pressure resistant HEAT, 5 CD for low pressure/ precision formed HEAT.
                                                                   v.     The subsidy-approved GPMG for the Lone Free State of Texas has the same form factor as the M240, but with switchable feed direction.. The standard HMG has the same form factor as the Kord, but with switchable feed direction.
      c.       Mobility
                                                                    i.     Engines tech level:
      1.      MB 838 (830 HP)
      2.      AVDS-1790-5A (908 HP)
      3.      Kharkov 5TD (600 HP)
      4.    Detroit Diesel 8V92 (400 HP)
      5.    Detroit Diesel 6V53 (200 HP)
                                                                   ii.     Power density should be based on the above engines. Dimensions are available online, pay attention to cooling of 1 and 3 (water cooled).
                                                                  iii.     Power output broadly scales with volume, as does weight. Trying to extract more power from the same size may come at the cost of reliability (and in the case of the 5TD, it isn’t all that reliable in the first place).
                                                                  iv.     There is nothing inherently wrong with opposed piston or 2-stroke engines if done right.
      d.      Electronics
                                                                    i.     LRFs- unavailable
                                                                   ii.     Thermals-unavailable
                                                                  iii.     I^2- Gen 2 maximum
                                                                  vi.     Texas cannot mass produce microprocessors or integrated circuits
                                                                 vii.    Really early transistors only (e.g., transistor radio)
                                                                viii.    While it is known states exist with more advanced computer technology, the import of such systems are barred by the east coast states who do not approve of their use by militaristic entities.
       
      Armor calculation appendix.
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