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The Space Exploration Achievements Thread


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  • 4 weeks later...
  • 3 months later...
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September 12, 1959 - The first spacecraft successfully landed on the moon.

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   On September 12, 1959, the Vostok-L launch vehicle with the Luna-2 interplanetary station was launched from Baikonur. On September 14, it became the first station in the world to reach the lunar surface. The moment of landing was recorded by Soviet and foreign observatories.
   The craft reached the lunar surface east of the Sea of Clarity. On board were placed 3 symbolic pennants: 2 in the apparatus and 1 in the last stage of the rocket. These were hollow balls made in the manner of a soccer ball from small pentagons with the words "USSR" and "USSR. September 1959 ".

 

   "Luna-2" was a sealed container in the shape of a ball, which housed scientific-measuring and radio-technical equipment. The scientific equipment included instruments for recording radiation and elementary particles, Geiger counters, magnetometers, and micrometeorite detectors.
   The main scientific achievement of the lunar mission was the detection of the solar wind and its direct measurement. Analysis of the information received showed that the Moon practically does not have its own magnetic field and radiation belt.

 

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  • 3 weeks later...
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   The Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle with three Gonets-M spacecraft and 22 small spacecraft with associated payload was taken to the 43/4 launch complex of the Plesetsk cosmodrome. Specialists of the enterprises of Roskosmos and Moscow Region have begun to perform operations to prepare for the launch, which is scheduled for September 28 at 14:20 Moscow time.

d-Qss-Trrkkh-Y

 

Spoiler

UQct-VV5-Np-Ts

 

NM28-Xs0-Xj-T4

 

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  • 2 months later...

https://newatlas.com/space/odd-radio-circles-cosmic-mystery/

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   "Odd radio circles" are the latest cosmic mystery to stump astronomers

 

   With the mystery of fast radio bursts looking increasingly solved, astronomers need a new cosmic conundrum to ponder. And right on cue, a brand new noodle-scratcher has emerged from the depths of space – everyone, meet “odd radio circles,” or ORCs.

 

   Continuing the trend of astronomers not being very creative about naming things, everything you need to know about this phenomenon is in the title. They’re blobs of radio emission, they're almost perfectly circular and they're very odd, because they can’t really be explained by any known source or object.

 

   The first ORC was discovered in September 2019 by Anna Kapinska of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), as she examined data from the pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) project. Two others were later found in the same dataset, while a fourth turned up in archival data from the Giant MetreWave Radio Telescope.

 

   The oddities showed up in radio images as clear circles, but don’t appear to give off any optical, infrared or X-ray emissions. As of yet there’s no telling how big they are or how far away they are – the team says they could be several-light-year-wide spots within the Milky Way, or blobs spanning millions of light-years across, much further away in the universe.

 

   Of course, the first assumption was that ORCs were some sort of visual artefact in the data, but follow-up observations with other radio telescopes confirmed that they were indeed real objects, albeit very faint, in the sky.

 

   So what are they? For now it remains a mystery, but the researchers have already investigated and ruled out a few possible explanations. At a glance, they appear to be similar to supernova remnants, clouds of debris left behind after stars explode. But they’re too far from the galactic plane where most stars orbit.

 

   ORCs also kind of resemble three other types of radio emissions often seen in space – radio rings around intense star-forming galaxies, “lobes” of emissions shooting out of supermassive black holes, or so-called Einstein rings, where signals like radio waves are bent into circles by gravity from galaxy clusters.

 

   But the team ruled out all three explanations. The ORCs are just too far away from any other stars or galaxies, and are too weirdly circular and symmetrical to be those types of emissions.

 

   The researchers conclude that these odd radio circles are a brand new astronomical object – although they may still be tied to known phenomena, such as fast radio bursts or the collisions between black holes and neutron stars that give off gravitational waves.

 

   The next step is to search for more ORCs in the sky. As with anything, the more information we can find about them, the closer we get to an answer. But for now, let’s enjoy the mystery.

 

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   On December 2, 1971, after a six-month flight, the Soviet Mars-3 lander touched the surface of the Red Planet. This was the first successful soft landing on another planet in the solar system in history. Data transmission from the automatic Martian station began 1.5 minutes after its landing on the surface of Mars, but stopped after 14.5 seconds.

   But, in itself, this event marked the beginning of the era of the study of Mars with the help of descent vehicles. The Automatic interplanetary station consisted of an orbital station - an artificial satellite of Mars and a descent vehicle with an automatic Martian station. The automatic Martian station included the ProP-M rover.

   Orbital station worked for 8 months and collected data on Mars surface using IR and radar detectos, magnetic fields, Mars atmosphere.

 

 

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   Mars-3 decent vehicle

 

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   Rover (or "walker"?)

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   The second test launch of the heavy "Angara-A5" was carried out from Plesetsk.

 

   On Monday, the space forces of the Russian Aerospace Forces conducted the second test launch of the Angara-A5 heavy carrier rocket with the mass model of the payload from the Plesetsk cosmodrome, the press service of the Russian Defense Ministry reported.

 

   Angara is a family of Russian launch vehicles ranging from light to heavy. The new family uses environmentally friendly fuel components. So far, only two launches have been carried out, both from the Plesetsk cosmodrome: the light "Angara-1.2PP" was launched in July 2014, the first launch of the heavy "Angara" took place on December 23, 2014, then a mock payload weighing 2 tons was launched into orbit.

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  • 1 month later...
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   The automatic interplanetary station of the United Arab Emirates Al Amal, having covered almost 500 million kilometers, successfully entered Mars orbit six months after launch. This was reported at the Muhammad bin Rashid Space Center. Thus, the UAE became the fifth country in the world whose spacecraft reached the Red Planet.

 

   Recall that the launch of the probe took place on July 20, 2020. The launch was carried out from the space center on Tanegashima Island in Japan using the H-IIA launch vehicle. Later, the probe detached from the rocket and began to send a signal. The spacecraft went into orbit on Mars at the scheduled time - at 18.42 Moscow time, after which the braking process began to enter the gravitational capture zone.

 

   The probe is designed to study the climate and the lower atmosphere of the planet. With the help of this apparatus, it will be possible to obtain a complete picture of the atmosphere of the Red Planet and create a global weather map. It is reported that the mission will last for about two years.

   UAE probe reached Mars.

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  • 2 months later...

for_press_release.jpg

 

SpaceX's Starship was selected as the sole lander (HLS) for the Artemis program. This has massive implications in multiple areas from what rockets can be used to the capabilities of Starship to NASA's funding to backroom lobbying and politicking.

 

Furthermore the document outlining the selection is absolutely brutal to Blue Origin and Dynetics.

 

https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/option-a-source-selection-statement-final.pdf

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   So apperently we are jumping from whole ISS programm in 2025 and building our own space station on a different (higher) orbit, with our own blackjack and hookers. State news already showed first module of this future Russian station in production by Energia. First module is "Nauka" ("Science"), which at first AFAIK will be launched for ISS.

 

   According to thise report ISS is too old and getting too costly. "ROS" will be located on higher orbit, will not be constantly manned. Station will be made in such way that changing each module will be faster and easier. One of new function of station will be help to flight to further places/planets.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwU1_jx1yG8

 

   Possible look of this station

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   Inflatable module for ROS

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Spoiler

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   Variant of internal layout of such module and multilayered body of module.

 

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   Cargo version of inflatable module

 

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   There will be 2 types of inflatable modules - medium and large. Medium will have D 3.75m and 7.1 meter in diameter/6.6 meters long when fully deployed. Large will be 14.6 meters long.

 

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  • 4 weeks later...

 

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Video quotes from the speech of the executive director of Roscosmos on promising programs A. Bloshenko at the "New Knowledge" marathon on May 22, 2021 

 

   Bloshenko talking about Russian take on reusable rockets - "Amur-SPG", medium rocket on liquefied natural gas.

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   According to Bloshenko all previous rockets were designed with military use and requirments for all rockets starting from 1960s, Amur-SPG is being developed without them. 3 main requirements are cost, mass of cargo and reliability, as Bloshenko said "engineers could design a square rocket if they needed, but all those 3 requirements should have been reached".

   22 mln US$ for launch (and all pre-launch processes) is aimed price for which rocket is being designed, 360t weight with fuel.

   Cargo - 13.6 for non-reusable 1 stage launch, 10.5 for reusable 1 stage launch. Engine is RD0169A, engine thrust is 100 ts on Earthб 110 in space. Specific impulse - 315/346.

 

   Planned flight in 2026. Will replace Soyuz-2. At first phase it is planned to have 10 flights per stage, 2nd phase 100 flights per reusable stage.

 

   Comparison with Soyuz-2.1b

Spoiler

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   Cargo launched at low orbit - 8.2 vs 10.5t

At high orbit (geotransfer orbit) - 2 vs 2.66t

Reliability - 0.98 vs 0.99

Preparation time - 2-5 days vs less than 1 day

Parts - ~4500 vs ~2000

labor intensity - 220k hours vs 174

Cost of production - 1 280 mln rubles vs ~900

 

   Simplified launch platform and support towers, underground sections.

 

   Why liquefied natural gas is used as a fuel:

Spoiler

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   Cost, higher specific impulse, less engines needed per same weight, low toxic waste in exhaust, lower time for engine cleaning, good cooling capability, infrastructure for LNG already exists and well known.

 

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   Launch site have LNG production facility nearby (Gazprom's Amurskaya GPZ).

 

   Other rockets on same fuel+oxidizer:

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   Other project that was covered is "Milky Way" system of detection of asteroid and comets, and tracking of potential dangerous space objects. We already have system that tracks space trash and other objects near Earth (ASPOS), "Milky Way" is supposed to addition to that system. 

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   ASPOS have optical stations, MoD adds data from their radar stations. Milky Way will allow to increase capabilities by adding orbital telescopes, will also add ability to search areas in direction of the Sun.

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   MOSCOW, May 29 - RIA Novosti. The launch of the Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket with 36 British communication satellites OneWeb from the Vostochny cosmodrome, which took place on Friday, ended in success and became the 59th consecutive accident-free space launch for Russia, this has not yet happened in the modern history of the country, follows from the calculations of RIA Novosti ...
/.../
   The accident-free series began after a manned launch in October 2018, when the Soyuz MS-10 flight to the International Space Station was interrupted due to an accident during the separation of the Soyuz-FG rocket stages. Thanks to the emergency rescue system, Russian cosmonaut Alexei Ovchinin and American astronaut Nick Haig landed safely.
/.../
   At the same time, the USSR in the period from January 1983 to November 1984 was able to carry out 185 successful space launches in a row. 

 

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NASA announced Wednesday that it will send, not one, but two spacecraft to Venus this decade as part of its efforts to ramp up exploration of the closest planet to Earth.
The decision was hailed by scientists who study Venus and have felt neglected by a space agency decidedly more interested in Mars. NASA has not sent a robotic spacecraft to Venus since the launch of the Magellan orbiter in 1989. Launched by space shuttle Atlantis, Magellan made a controlled entry into the Venusian atmosphere in 1994 after collecting reams of data that have tantalized scientists ever since."

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