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General cars and vehicles thread.


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16 minutes ago, Oedipus Wreckx-n-Effect said:

What's worse than trying to drive through high water?


Doing it in the winter.

I like how there are tire tracks from other vehicles that have gone by at some point.


"Hey, should we pull those people out?"


"Fuck that man. Those are Bernie Bros!"


*Guns motor and splashes through*

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Italian Monaco-Trossi 




   The car Monaco-Trossi was created in 1935 by racing drivers Augusto Monaco and Carlo Cassi to participate in the Formula 750 kg races. A special feature of the car was the installation of a 16-cylinder Essence radial engine with a 250 hp. The Monaco-Trossi was announced for participation in the Grand Prix of Italy in 1935, but at the last moment the car was recalled by the creators because of the unreliability of the engine and the poor handling revealed during the tests











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Michalak Conciso, a goofy looking car.



Michalak Conciso was created in 1993 by the German designer Bernd Michalak on the basis of the Italian sport car Ferrari 328. When creating the Conciso the chassis of the base car was used, on which the original fiberglass body was installed, and also engine was forced up to 300 hp . The presentation of the car took place at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1994. 3 cars are built















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The all-wheel drive truck MAZ-543, equipped with the "Perimeter" system, on tests; ~ 1977-1978




   System "Perimeter" is equipment for self-digging. The equipment consisted of a movable knife with a hydraulic drive mounted on the rear side of the car. The equipment capabilities allowed the caponier to be made for hiding the car in 3 hours. No mass production of "Perimeter", though.









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Brazilian Hofstetter Turbo sport car





   Work on a sport car with a mid-engine layout was started by the Brazilian inventor Mario Hofstetter in 1980. This decision was promoted by restriction on import of cars to Brazil, by the Brazilian government. The construction of the demonstration sample was completed in 1984


   Turbo Hofstarter had a body made of fiberglass. On early cars the Volkswagen Passat engine with Garret turbo-supercharge was installed, developing 140 hp. The cars of the later series were equipped with a Volkswagen Santana engine, also equipped with a Garret turbo, with a power of 210 hp. The car of the early series developed speeds up to 120 miles per hour, late - up to 147 miles per hour.


   The presentation of Turbo took place in 1984. At the same time, the organization of the serial production of the car began. The first vehicles were assembled by Hofstarter in 1986. The production of Turbo continued until 1993, but it was not very successful - just 19 machines were assembled, including the prototype.













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Moskvich-400/420 pick-up 




   This pickup was created in 1947 at the Moscow Automobile Small Car Factory on the basis of a car belonging to the first group of Moskvich-400. Several prototypes were produced, however, in the mass series of pick-up trucks based on the Moskvich-400 were not launched







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Pontiac Sunfire concept car




   Sunfire four-seat sports coupe was created in 1990. The car was equipped with a body made of carbon fiber, had independent suspension, ABS, five-speed automatic transmission and an 8-cylinder 190-horsepower engine.











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Nissan Boga




   This concept of a city five-seater car was presented by Nissan at the Tokyo Motor Show in 1989. Serial production of the Boga was originally not planned, and the car itself was viewed as a stand for demonstrating various equipment installed on the car: a touch-sensitive lock that automatically opened the door for fingerprint reading, a digital instrument panel, an audio system and an air-conditioning system powered by solar panels











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A question to the guys here that have experience with repairing cars.


I got a Volvo V50 2007, 1,6L TDI, FWD.   190 000 Km.


Sometimes, when the car runs at right below 2000RPM, usually in fourth gear going 60-70Kp/h, up a slight hill, engine running a little heavy, the steering wheel begins to shake and the car loses power slowly. When I press the accelerator, the steering wheel begins to shake more and more, and it feel like the engine begins to shake a lot, though I have not dared to give too much gas, in fear of damaging the engine. The engine gains in practice zero power, fuel usage stays almost the same. 
What seems to temporarily fix the issue, is the downshift, rev the engine, and the problem is gone. Sometimes I need to downshift two gears. 

Fuel consumption usually sits around 6,0L per 100km, when it happens. It has happened once in second gear. 


The engine also has had issues with small "coughs" where it loses power for a very short periods, usually 1-3 in a row, then gone.  In some very bad cases, the engine loses all power for a second, feeling like someone slammed the brakes for a second. About, three months ago, a yellow engine lamp also appeared for about a week, then went away.  It has also been on service in that time, nothing bad found apart from a broken heater. 


The problem has bothered the car for a couple of years now, but recently it has gotten progressively worse, happening more and more often. The mechanics have not found anything. 

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Mercedes-Benz F100 concept car




   Five-seater concept F100 was created in the early 90's and reflected the views of Daimler-Benz AG specialists on promising trends in the automotive industry. The car received a number of innovations, later partially implemented in the production cars: cruise control system, xenon headlights, solar panels on the roof, tire pressure system, rear-view camera, chip key, automatic seat adjustment, etc. The presentation of the car took place at the North American Automobile Exhibition of 1991 in Detroit





















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Buick Streamliner




   Buick Streamliner was developed in 1947-1948 by American inventor Norman Timbs. The two seater sports car was equipped with a Buick Super 8 engine, a suspension from the Ford of 1947, and an original frame and body created by Timbs himself. The car could reach speeds of up to 120 miles per hour. Despite the fact that the car aroused interest from the public, and was mentioned in a number of specialized publications, the Streamliner project did not receive further development, and remained as a single vehicle.















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Homer Simpson design bureau present to you - Ford La Galaxie concept car




   The concept of La Galaxie was created in 1957 in the framework of Ford's research of trends in the development of automobile design. A notable feature of the car was the claimed "possibility of installing a nuclear reactor." Designing La Galaxie was produced by a group of designers consisting of engineers from Advanced Studio and Lincoln-Mercuri studio in 1958-1962. The car was demonstrated at a number of American and European auto shows













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Italian sports car Maserati Khamsin




   4-place Maserati Khamsin was created in the early 1970s by studio Bertone in interests of concern Citroën, works on the car were supervised by Marcello Gandini. The presentation of the car took place at the Turin Motor Show in November 1972.





   The car was equipped with a 4.9-liter V8 AM 115 giving 320 hp. Khamsin had two types of gearboxes: a 5-speed mechanical Syncromesh ZF or a 3-speed automatic Borg Warner. Khamsin also received a number of high-pressure hydraulic systems from Citroën SM. The car could reach speeds of up to 270 km / h.

   In serial production, Khamsin was launched in 1974. In 1975 was launched a serial production of modified model, equipped according to American standards. Since 1977, Maserati has released an updated version of Khamsin with a modified exterior design. The production of Khamsin continued until 1982, during this period 435 cars were produced, of which 155 were exported to the USA.

















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  • 2 weeks later...

Japanese Toyota G1 cargo truck




   The G1 truck, with a carrying capacity of 1.5 tons, was created in 1933-1934 by a automobile subsidiary of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works , a Japanese factory for the production of weaving looms (automobile subsidiary was set up in 1933 under the supervision of one of the co-owners of the firm Kiichiro Toyoda). The design of the new car was similar to the trucks of American automobile corporations Ford and General Motors, with the designs of which Kiichiro Toyoda was familiarized during his trip to the USA in 1929.
   The presentation of the G1 took place in 1935 at the Tokyo Automobile Exhibition. In the 1935 it was put into serial production. The assembly of the G1 continued until September 1936, after which it was replaced on the production line by an updated version of the GA truck (in general, the production of the G-series trucks continued until 1947). The launch of the G1 series of cars, as well as of the A1 cars, contributed to the creation of automotive production in 1937 as a separate firm, Toyota Motor Corporation










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Sports cars Alpine 110 in the service of the French gendarmerie




   The first Alpines were involved in the experiment for patrolling the high-speed highway section by the gendarmes of the Nemur gendarmerie in 1966. In the project, two sports cars were involved: Alpine 110 itself and Matra Djet, and the gendarmes preferred Alpine as a result of the testing. Since 1967, the purchase of Alpine 110 began. The gendarmerie was supplied with A110 1500 equipped with 82 hp engine and equipped with a corresponding set of equipment (special lighting equipment and radio communication). Since 1969, supplies to the gendarmes of A110 1600, equipped with a 92 hp engine, have begun. Deliveries of this model were carried out until the production of Alpine 110 in 1972
















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      JimZhangZhang, Lightning, Akula_941, and U-47.
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    • By Oedipus Wreckx-n-Effect
      Wherein I tackle the idea of hydrogen fuel cell technology in private vehicles.
      Buckle up.
      For the past few years, Hydrogen Fuelcell technology has been making the news in regards to personal transportation. Regardless of how long fuel cell technology has been used in the space industry, the media treated it like a futuristic Godsend for personal vehicles. I recall there being plans drawn up for refueling stations in California, even. But the Bear State is fond of making whatever promise they can to skim as much money from its people.
      See the High Speed rail fiasco.
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      The Wiki gives a ton of great information. Most of you will know the basics. It's a gas at STP, contains a single valence electron in it's 1s shell (“shell” or cloud of probability derived by shrodinger's blah blah blah Physical Chemistry nonsense, don't make me do that derivation again). It was first artificially made by a guy named Cavendish, and is found naturally as a diatomic molecule.
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      In fact, it can undergo combustion at as low as 4% concentration with air. That's low.
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      Large enough to fit Colli-man's collection of miss-matched socks
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      (And then came the ultraviolet catastrophe, but that's another topic.)
      However, I mentioned above that hydrogen is extremely flammable at even very low concentrations within air. This fact really sunk the airship industry with a certain spectacular disaster.

      German Engineering, or Masonic Zion plot?
      It's easy to skip over this picture entirely. We've all seen it so many times (Unless you're one of my tutoring students, who look at me like I've got two heads when I mention it. “The hinda-what?”).
      But, this was the end of an era. Static charges ignited the hydrogen sacks that kept the big rigid frame afloat. And though we could have used Helium, a much more stable gas, the damage was done. No one would step foot near a rigid airship again.
      (Also our world's supply of Helium is finite and diminishing very very quickly. It would be wasted in airships. But again, another topic another time)
      Let's get back to the Hydrogen Fuelcell. What exactly is it, and how does it work?
      The basic model is shown below.

      This diagram is for a Proton Exchange Fuel Cell. The proton here is simply a hydrogen that's been stripped of its single electron. A fuel cell works by having very special membranes carefully constructed to permit the passage of a positively charged ion, but not the negatively charged electron. This travels through another path, leading to a voltage across the cell. This voltage can be used to power any electrical device.
      This is an oversimplification of how the device works, but it's a start.
      The benefits of such a device include the shear efficiency that it can have. When properly insulated and owing to proper low-resistance connections, these devices are pushing out efficiencies twice that of internal combustion engines. Which, despite what many places attempt to sell you, are actually quite thermodynamically efficient. These proton based fuel cells have great cold-start characteristics and energy density. Their outputs can actually be very high.
      Indeed, these fuel cells are efficient at all power outputs as well. Their efficiency does not vary with flow of fuel source either.
      Their temperatures can be as low as 80 degrees C. However, usually they are kept above 100 degrees C because steam is far more manageable than liquid water byproduct.
      So with all of this information, you're probably wondering why haven't we started putting these into all sorts of places. This post is about personal vehicles, however, and I'll get right back to that.
      No. I disagree completely with them being used in personal vehicles.
      While I love fuel cells as a power device, their use in personal vehicles is greatly limited. One of the biggest engineering hurdles is the flammability and storage of pure hydrogen. Since hydrogen has such a low molecular weight, to obtain a large enough amount to power a personal vehicle would require a very high pressure container. If you remember back to your Chemistry classes in high school, you may remember the Ideal Gas Equation. Hydrogen is pretty close to an Ideal Gas. As close as you'll get, really. The Ideal Gas Law, in actual use, is only about 84% accurate when used to guess thermodynamic systems. For hydrogen it's much higher.
      PV=nRT, where n is the number of moles. Keeping everything but Pressure and number of moles the same, to increase the number of moles directly increases the pressure. And H2, having a molecular weight of 2 Grams per Mole, would require a ton of moles to get a decent amount of the gas.
      A very high pressure container of pure hydrogen gas in a vehicle that routinely travels at 70 mph. Which is statistically guaranteed to be in an accident in its lifespan.
      The Germans are watching this and going “Nein Nein Nein!”
      According to this nifty search, over 3,000 people die per day in the US due to vehicular collisions. Ouch. 
      However, this issue is the first to be solved. The introduction of Metal Hydrides have solved the storage issues. Metal Hydrides act as chemical sponges for Hydrogen gas (H2), binding the molecules inside their chemical structure. These metal hydrides are usually used as powders, where the hydrogen is then pushed through to store. To release the hydrogen, the metal hydride must be heated. The rate of diffusion is directly related to the temperature at which the metal hydride is heated, and thus the fuel rate into the fuel cell can be varied by varying the temperature of the metal hydride.
      Metal hydrides can absorb 2 to 10% H2 usually, but better compounds are being produced to increase the number.
      This is good, because it gives us a safe way to store hydrogen gas for fuel cells.
      This is bad, because the fuel delivery rate is much lower, and metal hydride fuel cells are, at their very best, 1/4th as powerful as their PEM brothers. At worst, they are 1/50th.
      But this is the best we can do in a vehicle. No one wants pressurized hydrogen canisters on the highways. Hell, most of the time you need special clearance and big signs to transport the stuff. And imagine the safety concerns for the EMTs and Paramedics during a car crash. Even if the tank isn't ruptured, no EMT or Paramedic would risk their lives until the wreckage was cleared.
      When I was going through my EMT training, they made it very clear that it doesn't matter if people are bleeding out in front of you. If you go in while it's still dangerous, you're only being a liability to your fellow EMTs, Firefighters, and police.
      But let's ignore the low power outputs of these MH Fuel Cells. What other issues do we have?
      Well, the fuel cell itself must be created using some very interesting techniques and materials. The biggest expense would be the platinum. Other catalysts are needed as well. As well as a very special proton-permeable membrane.
      To function, the membrane must conduct hydrogen ions (protons) but not electrons as this would in effect "short circuit" the fuel cell. The membrane must also not allow either gas to pass to the other side of the cell, a problem known as gas crossover. Finally, the membrane must be resistant to the reducing environment at the cathode as well as the harsh oxidative environment at the anode.
      This system includes electrodes, electrolyte, catalyst, and a porous gas diffusion layer. The rate of reaction will be dependent also on how quickly the water vapor product can diffuse through the porous material and out of the system. A system can have a lowered efficiency if the fuel cell is too dry or too wet. A balance must be met.
      And while yes, all of these situations can be worked around, it all comes at a heavy price. Currently we are using 30 grams of platinum in vehicle sized PEM fuel cells. This number will be going down once different catalysts are created, but the cost of these vehicles still pushes up to $50,000. The cost will go down, like any technology.
      I've yet to speak about where we obtain this hydrogen gas from. The easiest way to obtain hydrogen gas is via the electrolysis of water. H20 + An Electric Current → H2 + O2, essentially (it's not balanced, I know this.)
      But that electric current must be created as well. This usually comes from the electric grid, which is still, depending on the state, a majority coal-burning.
      Natural Gas reformation is another way to obtain Hydrogen gas, and is the most common way we currently use. It's the cheapest as well. Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a small amount of carbon dioxide, is created by reacting natural gas with high-temperature steam. The carbon monoxide is reacted with water to produce additional hydrogen.
      The other common ways are via fermentation of biofuel stocks (which is a long process without a great yield) or liquid reforming, which is really unfeasible in large quantities.
      The only way to obtain large amounts of hydrogen is via natural gas reformation, and that's still technically a fossil fuel source. So why were we going with hydrogen fuel cells again? To rid ourselves of dirty, dirty fossil fuel? Well shit.
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      PEM fuel cell technology is awesome and I love it to death in many many situations. But vehicles isn't one of them.
      I may read about more advances in the near future that would change my opinion completely, but I would be surprised.
      Below I've added a problem out of my heat and mass transfer book (Incropera, 7th edition).

    • By StrelaCarbon
      Even though I'm relatively new to this forum, it did not take long at all for me to notice that here, I am in the company of many fellow petrolheads.
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