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I don't know if anyone ever checks the internet archive but they have books.   All kinds of books.  Including gun books. 


Understanding Firearm Ballistics




The Thermodynamics of Firearms. Design of firearms as heat engines and the interior and exterior ballistics of projectiles.

(two copies)




The Big Book of Ballistics





They also have some older books that might interest some: 


Principles Of Firearms [ Charles Edward Balleisen


And some DTIC stuff - alot of it actually:


DTIC ADA226267: Superconducting and Computational Penetration Mechanics


DTIC ADA570804: Physical Mechanisms of Soft Tissue Injury from Penetrating Ballistic Impact


So the real treasure may be the fact there's more stuff people can find (and download, they have multiple formats and even torrents it seems) and store for technical discussion.


(Also I see some of my links are down.  I'll have to find some time in the future to replace them all but if somebody wants something I posted before send me a private message and I'll try to fix it. 


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Haven't really had time to dig into stuff or post (I'm sure I have stuff somewhere, its just a mess of bookmarks currently since I've had computer issues and I haven't been motivated enough to organize.)   But I did run across a couple articles that might be interesting:


The Failure of a Tungsten Carbide - Cobalt Cored Projectile Penetrating a Hard Target


What's interesting is that this is one of those lengthier papers that has an overview of AP stuff and some background, so someone interested in learning a bit about this might find it useful even if the focus is primarily ceramics and WC. 


Anyhow the abstract:


Experimental results are presented from an investigation of the parameters of a ceramic-faced armour system that are required to induce damage in a tungsten carbide - cobalt (WC-Co) penetrator. A WC-Co material model has been successfully developed and implemented within the numerical hydrocode AUTODYN 2D. The understanding of penetration mechanisms was used to guide a parametric investigation, validating the WC-Co material failure model with experimental results.


A series of experiments has been conducted firing the Russian 14.5 mm BS41 WC-Co cored projectile into various thicknesses and types of alumina (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC), backed by aluminium alloy or mild steel semi-infinite witness blocks. Results demonstrated that SiC B out-performed standard monolithic armours and a selection of other armour ceramics including PS 5000 SiC and Sintox-CL. After comminution, the SiC B consisted of particles of closely interlocked grains. These appeared to provide considerable resistance to deviatoric stresses. Results suggest that it is not only increased hardness but also the nature of the fracture of the ceramic ahead of the penetrator that improves the armour’s ballistic performance at defeating WC-Co penetrators. If such superior ballistic response can be controlled and incorporated into practical armour systems, it will provide the basis for an advance in armour protective capability against WC-Co penetrators.


In addition, a numerical material model derived from experimental data was developed to provide a preliminary tool to study the WC-Co failure. It was demonstrated that the numerical estimation of WC-Co behaviour using a shock Equation Of State (EOS), a piecewise linear strength model and a principle stress failure model provides a good method to estimate spall behaviour under dynamic loading in AUTODYN 2D. Successful numerical simulation of the material model used demonstrated the future potential of the technique.


Key Words: Alumina (Al2O3), AUTODYN 2D, Depth of Penetration (DoP), Silicon Carbide (SiC), Tungsten Carbide – Cobalt (WC-Co).



Optimisation of small arms defeat via dynamic jacket removal


This one is another lengthy paper but it also has a small overview a newcomer to the topic might like.   Bonus points for adding the Nanosuit from Crysis as an example of 'future' development.   Also the influence (good or bad) of the jacket on penetration is something I've been interested in since discovering that Athena AP round. 


Edit:  This second paper has some oddities if not inaccuracies in it so I'm not 100% sure how reliable it is, I suppose someone more qualified will have to judge that.  Be warned to take anything in this with a grain of salt. 


The link leads to a page where you can download the paper.




The majorities of studies into penetration by small arms have neglected the contribution of the jacket to the penetration event due to its small mass compared to the rest of the bullet. Recent research has suggested that the jacket does actually play a measurable role in the penetration of a target. This project has focused on the concept of dynamic jacket removal as an approach to optimise small arms defeat. This approach was envisaged to address the gap in current knowledge with regards to the role of the bullet jacket in the penetration of a target. Here, jacket stripping techniques were employed, elucidating underling mechanisms where armour piercing (AP) rounds were fired at target materials. Forward ballistic experiments were conducted, utilising conventional ballistic testing on an indoor small arms range as well as 30 mm and 50 mm smooth bore single stage light gas guns. To compliment this work, reverse ballistic experimentation was also undertaken on a 50 mm single stage light gas gun. Impact events were interrogated via a series of diagnostics including high speed video imaging, flash X ray radiography and depth of penetration testing. Experimental results were complimentary, providing insight into two key competing effects with regards to the jacket on penetration. These were the potential for the jacket to cushion / damp the impact, as well as the physical confinement resulting from the presence of the jacket itself around the bullet core. Further, these experiments also identified a potential optimum in terms of stripping plate design. In addition, to further investigate the role of the bullet jacket, sample cores and jacket materials were loaded both together and in isolation using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, with results in particular highlighting the cushioning effect of the jacket material. Limited numerical simulations were also produced using Ansys® Autodyn. These numerical results further elucidated the experimental work – again highlighting the importance of the jacket in terms of cushioning the impact event / reducing the subsequent pre-loading of the penetrating AP core. Overall, both experimental and numerical results showed that the bullet jacket does indeed aid in penetration. In corollary, in practical terms, jacket removal has the potential to aid in armour performance – with the experiments conducted herein providing insight into dynamic jacket removal. In terms of such stripping mechanisms, it was demonstrated that a plate thickness comparable to the calibre of the bullet appeared optimal. Further, results have also shown the importance of hardness and other material properties when considering the final defeat of an incident projectile through spallation.


Hopefully somebody will find one or both of these useful.


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“A ceramic armor material database” 1999 



Collection of a lot of tests and data into one concise document. 10/10, am still reading after 3 days because it’s over 200 pages :lol:


Ceramics included are silicon carbide, boron carbide, titanium diboride, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide (85% pure), aluminum oxide (high purity), tungsten carbide, and soda lime glass. 

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“Kinetic energy penetrator long term strategy study” 1990 


A good, 147 page document on US thoughts between tungsten alloy and depleted uranium APFSDS, with a handy “executive summary” that gives a concise overview of the document. 

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