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  1. LOL I'M SORRY BUT WHAT?!?!?! Did they seriously fire a shot into the distance to make the target seem far away, then cut to a close up shot of it shooting a target 20m away to show off the "accuracy"? Either that or they wanted to display that 3BM59 can penetrate plywood from close combat ranges. The number of horizontal posts match as well as the left white target being taller than the right, the black mark on the lower left corner of the left white target, the trees being in the background. Guess that slipped past the editor.
  2. The problem is a base K2 even back in 2014 is a lot cheaper than a 2A7+ with all the bells and whistles it currently has (but without APS based on when this doc was written). https://www.cfc.forces.gc.ca/259/290/405/305/quendt.pdf https://www.defence24.com/hungarian-leopard-mbts-unveiled-what-was-the-cost-analysis If we just assume that the upgraded K2NO/K2M is around the same price as the 2A7+, it would still more way expensive to just bring the Leopard 2A7 up to a level equal to that of the K2. Even so it would be entirely left up to Norway to figure out how to mount those systems and which systems it would use which is R&D costs on top of that. The K2 doesn't use the hollow mantlet like the Leclerc. Either way add-on armor isn't impossible. The Abrams did it with the SEPs, the Leopard did it heavily from 2A4 -> 2A5. I see no reason why it can't be done with the K2 as they advertise that they can do it. The side armor is also modular meaning it retains it's strategic mobility. Yeah I explained it pretty poorly the first go around, but I tried clarifying a bit better with an edit. Basically if SK gets the rights to export the EPP then spares can be found in basically every EU country that has tried to export a tank at one point in the last 30 years which is basically everyone. If they go with the Doosan PP then Turkey will have spares along with SK and local production in Norway granted it won't be nearly as readily available which I will admit. https://www.gd-ots.com/munitions/artillery/155mm-smart/ The T-14 does have soft ERA mounted on the roof, but the SMArt 155 which the KSTAM-II was modeled off of is advertised as effective against heavily armored targets as well as ERA. Smart top attack munitions definitely aren't the signal to the death of the 120mm. The KSTAM isn't even meant for direct attack. I'm just giving an example of how the K2 can take out a big scary Armata without even needing line of sight to it. No matter what KSTAM is a major firepower upgrade over the Leopard despite them using the same gun. Even after the T-14 enters production, the 120mm will have decades of life purely because Russia will never produce them in a meaningful capacity.
  3. Laser warning system, the millimeter radar being integrated offensively and defensively, better placement of the radar than what we have seen with early shots of the 2A7 w/ trophy, automatic target tracking with the FCS, RWR, OECM, better strategic mobility, HP suspension with better recoil dampening. As for parts it's hard to speak on what config it would be delivered in with it's power pack, the problem with Turkey getting the EPP RENK/MTU 883 Ka-501 was the arms embargo, but either way it seems like in 2021 Korea has gotten the kinks sorted out with their domestic solution. If the K2NO can get the EPP then there will be tons of spares. If they go with the Korean PP and Norway still considers it a serious contender then spares will be a non-problem because if they were then the K2 wouldn't be on the table in the first place. For retraining crews, at least for the Polish program it was designed to replace T-72s, so regardless the crews would need to be retrained and a 3 crew autoloaded vehicle -> 3 crew autoloaded vehicle is a much easier switch. https://thediplomat.com/2015/05/is-the-worlds-deadliest-tank-bankrupting-russia/ 2000 Armata's by 2020 amirite? In reality T-72 budget cuts are going to be the primary armored force of Russia well into the mid 21st century. Also the K2 is incredibly future proofed against the Armata especially with KSTAM. Afghanit has been alleged to be ineffective against TOW-2Bs, so no way is it ever intercepting KSTAM Not Poland as it's basically booted from ever being a part of the MGCS as that is the exact reason why they went with the Abrams instead of getting more Leopards. As for Norway they are basically planned to spend 1/4 of their yearly military expenditures just on this acquisition program which is a lot for a tank they will sideline in 30 years. The only real difference between production K2's and the ones offered to Poland is the extra add-on armor which isn't going to magically make the K2 implode. There was no reason to make anything more than a plastic model when Poland completely skipped trials and didn't even ask for a test sample to be produced.
  4. It will prob still happen for the Norway bid. The problem with Poland is that the decision behind going with the Abrams is pretty dumb. Basically the first deliveries of the K2 would've began in 2025 which Poland deemed too far away. Normally this would seem like the right idea if they are worried about Russia, but then you realize that their F-35 deliveries don't start until 2024/2025, their project to replace the BMP-1 isn't expected to go into full effect until 2025. So basically they went for immediate security while ignoring that they have 40 F-16s, a SAM network with not enough ammo, and a bunch of incredibly outdated IFVs to support their shiny new tanks. So basically even if Poland did go to war with Russia before 2025 it wouldn't matter if they have a few extra Abrams or not. Norway on the other hand doesn't seem to have put such a time constraint on their program and still has considers the K2 a serious bidder. Purely off of merit of the vehicle and not simply political interference I would expect the K2 to win. The electronics systems and battle management systems that Korea has seem to be a much better offering than the Leopard. If Norway is offered KSTAM then that is a massive improvement in terms of firepower. The biggest factor is probably future proofing. The K2 is an almost brand new platform and is ready to take on the weight of any future upgrades while the 2A7 is almost 10-15tons heavier than the original 2A4 and isn't exactly in the position to be taking on another 5 tons the next time an upgrade cycle rolls around without seeing some problems. With the MGCS rolling around the Germans obviously aren't going to go "alright shut down all Leopard R&D immediately", but it will definitely take a noticeable hit in terms of first party support as the years tick on.
  5. If it makes the brits feel any better. They are still on par with Russian's BMP-T because they didn't realize that the muzzle gas from one 30mm would push the barrel of the other and vice versa causing the guns to spray wildly past ~800m.
  6. Where would you put the radiator on a front engine tank? In a rear engine tank the radiator just sits at the engine deck where it doesn't compromise any protection. For starters large pockets in spaced armor are not that effective. A bunch of much smaller gaps are proven to be much more effective, and really can't compare to ceramics. Also lets not forget about this No they don't, front mounted transmissions died in the 60s and the only AFVs you actually see with such a layout are APCs and IFVs that need the space in the back to carry troops and aren't meant to be taking shots from MBTs in the first place. Once again lol no. One of the lightest engines on an in service MBT belongs to the Type 10 and it's 4.2 tons. You have absolutely 0 concept of weight distribution if you think you could just slap an extra 2 tons up front, let alone 4.2 tons, then think you could move the turret back like 1.5 meters and everything would be fixed. Lets just ignore how cameras can get damaged or dirty. There is a reason why all MBTs still retain periscopes for the driver and even old WW2 style telescopic sights for their gunners. If the Merkava was some ultimate god tank that was as amazing as you claim it is wouldn't every single country in the world adopt a similar style? Who am I to believe, some nobody JIDF shill or every other tank engineer outside of Israel. In reality where everyone else lives, we understand that the Merkava is an incredibly niche tank that only makes sense for Israel combat. Also 2000 tanks across 4 different tanks isn't even all that impressive. Even Japan has roughly around those numbers. Still the Merkava is still 10x better designed than your fantasy super tank that just casually extends out an extra 2 meters in an era where everyone is trying to shed weight.
  7. Glad to see it. I've been rooting for the AS21 to win and would've hated to see it only get dropped for a reason other than it's performance and capabilities.
  8. None of these are very good "simulations". There is so much that is unknown about ballistic science, armor construction, and projectile construction that these are mainly to show how a projectile armor interaction maybe, might, possibly, perhaps, somewhat, workout in perfect circumstances. These videos are pretty much for entertainment purposes only.
  9. https://m.blog.naver.com/PostView.nhn?blogId=rgm84d&logNo=222051194115&navType=tl Hyundai Rotem seems to be taking a page out of the Polish handbook with their newest MBT concept. I dont understand the idea behind building a super tank on paper only for it to never actually happen and the designing company to come out the other end with worse off brand reputation afterwards. The K2 is one of my favorite MBTs so to see H R roll out with a project overtaking the PL01 in fantasy BS is a little disappointing as I would expect better than this empty marketing from them.
  10. The problem is they have no high pressure ammo to fire out of it. DM73 isn't in production yet, good luck getting Japan to part with any Type 10, and its unknown if the US would sell non-export M829A3/A4 with it being DU. Either way their best bet would to just be waiting until DM73 as I don't predict the UK getting in any major land wars in the next few years.
  11. Unsure about if the gun is Korean modified or not, but as for why L/55 is a standard is because anything longer than that and the gas starts to lose efficiency. Between pressure lost through small gaps, friction on the sabot, and the explosive reaction being complete and no new energy being inputted, anything past 55 calibers means you start to lose energy.
  12. My primary reason for this is the fact that its got a proper diagram with listed lengths which is pretty hard to come by past DM33. It acted as essentially a control group to make sure I was doing proper measurements. However after cross checking with your measurements I can't find any fault in your measurements either despite them being different from mine and I have a few guesses as to why. Here is the first one. When measuring I was measuring from tip to ends of the fins. I found a diagram of 105mm Type 93 to compare against the Type 10 as there was no indication for either method and saw that the fin tips weren't included in the measurement for the Type 93 meaning that you were right with the exclusion of fins. Now this is a big problem for my control. By all accounts my numbers appeared to line up despite this error, but I went back to check anyways and found that I mis-measured the sabot diameter at 56px instead of the actual 57px and this would've tipped me off immediately to the fact that my scale was wrong. Going and measuring the cartridge diameter also shows the scale was off in a much bigger way. As it turns out that somewhere in the process of the Type 10 diagram being passed around the internet, it got stretched in the vertical axis, and when correcting for this, the exclusion of the fins got me an actually accurate scale. Basically I went into it thinking my control group was accurate, but it ended up just throwing off my other measurements. That combined with the fact that the images are so blurry means that a few pixels can make a big difference. Just switching the sabot size on DM53 from 88px to 87px changes the overall length back up to 759mm alongside OPs original estimate. With the DM53 picture being so blurry compared to the M829A3 it's not surprising that one was accurate and 1 got messed up just from image clarity. Either way I found my mistake and also what just can't be helped with such an imprecise and subjective measurement system and this is exactly why I wanted other people doing their own measurements.
  13. So I've seen this image used a whole lot across the internet as an estimate for the proportions of DM53 and I thought I would do my own measurements on it to see how things line up. Disclaimer: I am merely providing my own interpretation of the measurements using the same methodology as whoever originally posted the image. Pixel measuring is an inherently inaccurate measurement tool and very subjective especially on blurry images such as this as people will have different opinions on which pixels can be considered part of the rod and which cannot. I accounted for pixel bleed as best I could by ignoring the softer and less consistent outlines where it was applicable. I do not consider my measurements any more correct and encourage other people to do their own measurements to compare to as well. In the image M829A3 and DM53 are not scaled exactly the same, there is a few px difference, so the ratios for both OP and my measurements will vary between the rounds. Both DM53 and M829A3 don't have any officially published lengths, so people have gone to pixel measuring as a way to get estimates. I started with M829A3 first by taking the pixel ratio for OPs estimate of 930mm. At 696px long this gave a ratio of 1.3362. The sabot diameter is always 119.9mm which makes it an excellent scaling tool which is what I used for my measurements(here I rounded it up to an even 120mm for simplicity sake). At 90px wide the ratio I got was 1.333 repeating. At a 0.003 difference OP did a good job measuring 829A3 imo as my ratio gave me a total length of the projectile of 928mm, only a 2mm or less than 2 pixel difference in our measurements. For all intents and purposes I consider M829A3's measurements accurate as can be estimated using this method. Now onto DM53. Using OPs estimate of 760mm that gives us a ratio of 1.381818. Going off of the sabot which is 88px wide, I get a ratio of 1.3636 repeating. Now the difference here is a bit bigger (10mm or just over 7 pixels difference which I consider far outside the margin of error of 1-2pixels from M829A3) and when applying my ratio to the 550px long rod I get to total length of exactly 750mm. I actually found that OPs measurements for the diameter of DM53 lined up pretty well with mine just being a 1mm difference, but that is understandable due to the smaller pixel count of the diameter. My last issue is with how OP measured the depth that the actual penetrating rod goes into the fin section. The pic of M829A3 is a proper cross section and we can see exactly where the rod ends so there is no estimates there, however the DM53 pic isn't a cross section and OP has given his own estimate of where he thinks it might end. To find a more accurate (but not exact) estimate in the ball park of where it might end I utilized the ratio of fin length to depth that the rod goes into that section. Here I also brought in a diagram of Type 10 APFSDS and I will explain why later. M829A3 has 125mm long fins based on my measurements, 28mm or 22% of that length is overlapped by the penetrating rod. DM53 has 110mm long fins based on my measurement and OPs estimate puts his estimate of where the rod might end at a depth of 54mm or just shy of 50% Here I brought in a diagram of Type 10 APFSDS, because despite how secretive the Japanese are about their military equipment, we know quite a bit on this round. I used it as a control value to compare my estimates of M829A3 and DM53. At 748mm long for the projectile and 350 pixels across I got a ratio of 2.13714. With the sabot at 56 pixels in diameter applying my ratio gives 119.6mm which is well within the margin of error (which is expected as we already know the measurements). Now that we know the Type 10 diagram is accurate we can go back to the fins. Type 10 has 117mm long fins and a 32mm rod depth into the fin section which gives a 27% overlap (M829A3: 22%, OP's estimate DM53: 50%). And that is where my issue lies. I went ahead and gave DM53 the same overlap as Type 10 at 27% as M829A3 has a very different and longer fin design that pushes farther past the projectile body. 27% of 110mm gives 30mm and when measuring to the penetrator tip that OP estimated we get a 625mm penetrator length and an overall projectile length of 750mm for DM53. Let me know if I screwed up anywhere.
  14. It uses a mix of medium and high frequency induction heating. With the device they patented, they are able to treat sections of steel up to 3m in length (which is a pretty big deal since it's usually hard to get NC steel plates that large). Talks about the quenching liquid and cooling rate to prevent cracking, but doens't mention which liquid was used, but does mention that Matensite does form in the cooling process. Talks about maintaining the correct space between the induction heater and steel plate and methodology to maintain that distance despite possible warpage from the heating process. Talks about how their methodology allows for the treatment of much thicker plates than what was normally possible before. Basically they use a combination of medium and high frequency induction to allow for better heat treatment deeper into the steel (prior to this methodology single frequency induction was primary a surface treatment and didn't penetrate and heat treat the center of the steel). While the coil is moving around and heating the plate they dump an unknown liquid onto the surface at varying temperatures appropriate to the stage to quench the metal before it is once again passed over by the coil. The rapid heating and quenching at varying temperatures allows for better crystal structure formation as only certain crystal structures form under certain temperatures and conditions so the changing variables allows for more even and diverse crystal formation. Another effect of multiple treatments in rapid succession is that the grains constantly form, break apart then reform smaller each time which allows for the extremely small grain structure required of NC steel. Video showing what induction heat treatment is like
  15. Simple size and weight shouldn't really be an excuse here seeing as the Type 10 is the lightest MBT with a standard chamber pressure that is 100 bar short of the 2A46M-5s maximum chamber pressure, while also having the smallest recoil impulse. That isn't to say that Russia NEEDS a better recoil system though. When you have 7+ seconds between firing and a completed reload cycle there isn't much point of having an immediate stable firing platform when you still need 5 more seconds to finish reloading. My point is just that Russia's recoil system is pretty substandard and being light isn't an excuse for that. Japan went this route for the Type 16 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rDJPxZKXlcU&t=21s Although the Type 16 doesn't have active suspension like the MBTs it still has passive suspension for smoothening regular cross country driving as well as recoil impulses which allows for stuff like this. While the Stryker which ironically has an active suspension system, lacks a proper passive one looks like this
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